11. The Distribution of the « Protection Passes »

Within one month 40 people were occupied with the distribution of the passes. Anyone who could prove either a business or family connection with Sweden got the special pass. The restrictions were necessary otherwise the pass would be worthless if freely distributed. This news travelled quickly among the Jews. The Swedish Legation was surrounded by a mass of people. With result Wallenberg´s department often moved. By November, 8000 passes had been distributed.

Swedish Refuge Houses

Wallenberg attended to the needs of the people in his protection. By October he had 32 Refuge Houses set up, plus two hospitals and a field kitchen. He now had nearly 400 employees most of which were Jews. They did not have to wear the „Yellow Star“.
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12. An End in View?

Horthy Stopped Deportation

Eichmann was planning a new deportation transport for the Budapest Jews. As Wallenberg discovered this he commissioned a meeting of the heads of the diplomatic services from the neutral states.

This was directed by Nuntius Angelo Rotta. Together they passed a diplomatic note against deportation. On the 24th of August Rumania surrendered to Russia. This opened the border to the south. Horthy cancelled the deportation plans. Eichmann had to leave Hungary. Horthy formed a new government.

Wallenberg Thinking Of Returning To Sweden

The situation had relaxed. Wallenberg was hoping to return to Sweden. Beginning of October the Red Army suitated 80 Km south of Budadpest.
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13. The Arrow Cross Revolt

The Failed Ceasefire

In order to trick the Russians Horthy planned a ceasefire. On the 15th of October, in a radio broadcast he announced the war was over. The joy and jubilation by the Jews was premature. The Germans kidnapped Horthy´s son and forced him to surrender.

The following day he was sent to Germany in exile. The Arrow Cross leader, Ferenc Szálasi, took over power. Some juvenile Arrow Cross members roamed the streets and murdered hundreds of Jews. The bodies were left on the streets or thrown in the Danube River.
Wallenbergs Expanded Rescue Actions

Raoul Wallenberg cycled through te streets of Budapest looking for his helpers. He now had 400 helpers working around the colock for him. In October he organized a department with the name « Schützling Protokoll“. The group was concerned with the needs of the protected Jews. Wallenberg demanded a lot from his workers:

« Members of this Department must be on duty constantly, day and night, without any respite. If somebody gets cought, he cannot hope for much help. If he does a good job, he cannot expect any thanks.“
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14. Fight about the Validity of the « Refuge Passes »

There were many attacks made on the „Refuge Houses“ resulting in Jewish deaths. On hearing about such attacks, Wallenberg made his way to the houses. His presence alone stopped the Arrow Cross gangs. There were many times he didn´t get there on time. How important his personal presence was, is depicted in the following:

« Wallenberg made me feel human again. For the first time I had hope. In fact, I think that everyone felt different after his first visit. He showed us that we were not animals, that someone cared about us. The most important factor was he came in person. For us, he took a standing, for every single one of us.“
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15. The Death March

Germany Demanded Hungarian Enforced Labour

Two days following the Arrow Cross coup, Adolf Eichmann returned to Budapest. He wished to complete his task: To exterminate the „Budapest Jews“. The German envoy Veesenmayer drew up an agreement with Vajina. 50.000 Jews were to return and work for the Empire. There were no railway carriages available for the deportation. Eichmann decided to let them march.

The Death Marches Begin

On the 8th of November the marches began. Later they would be known as the „Death Marches“. They headed for the Hungarian-Austrian frontier, which was a distance of 150 Km. The people were not properly equiped for such long marches. The convoys consisted of many women, children and old people and very soon Death lined the streets.

Protest And Help From Neutral Countries

Representatives from neutral countries protested against renewd deportation plans. Raoul Wallenberg, representative for Switzerland and the Red Cross organisation, distributed food, medicine, blankets and „Protection Passes“. They rescued the protected Jews fromt gehe convoys.
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16. The End of the « Death Marches »

The Jews that were not rescued from the convoys, ended up in concentration camps, mainly Dachau and Mauthausen. In November 1944, according to a statement from Veesenmayer, 27.000 Jews, both male and female, headed for the Empire. A daily average of 2.000-4.000 people. Senior officer Hoess, head of the lower Danube division, mad a complaint about the marches. He complainted that this „unsuitable contigment“ of half starved, sick trash was severaly incriminating his division. Other Nazis complainted about the manner in which the marches were carried out in the public eye. As result, Szálasi on the 21st of November ordered, from there on women could only be deported when transport was available. With his the organisation collapsed. Over 76.000 Jews had to take part in the marches. Thousands of them died of hunger, were shot or died as result of the cold weather and the diseases.
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17. Rescue from « Enforced Labour »

Enforced Labour Battalion No. 701

Following the revolt in October 1944 many Jews were arrested and sent to „Enforced Labour“ contingents, many of which were „protected Jews“. Following protests and efforts from the legation department of the neutral countries, a special „Enforced Labour Battalion“ was set up for protected Jews under the name „Battalion No. 701“. Szálasi acknowledged the protection passes again. The Jews were returned to Budapest. Raoul Wallenberg recognized the genuine alarm by the Salvadorian workers. Wallenberg looked after them, as he did for the Swedisch Jews.

The Rescue Of The Salvadorian And Swedish Jews

End of November the „Protected Forced Workers“ were due to be handed over to Germany. As in a previous deportation plan, in November 1944 Wallenberg managed to rescue hundreds of Swedish and Salvadorian Jews. The remainder were deported.
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18. Eichmann and Raoul Wallenberg

« Shoot The Jewishdog Wallenberg“

Adolf Eichmann became very embittered due to Wallenberg´s activities. Eichmann had never come across such a resistance movement. In the presence of members of the Swedish „Red Cross“, Eichmann threatened the „Jewishdog“ Wallenberg with his life. This was followed by an official Swedish complaint in Berlin. The Germans envoy, Veesenmayer, stated, that „Wallenberg was wholly comitted to the Hungarian Jewish Cause.“

Raids On Protection Houses

Wallenberg and the Swiss Vice Consul Carl Lutz protested on a daily basis to the minister for Foreign Affairs about the raids on the Protection Houses. Also homes for children were raided. In one particular attack on a Swedish house all 180 residents were murdered. In January 1945, following dealings with a „gangleader“ Wallenberg succeeded in putting a stop to the raids.
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19. The Ghettos were Rescued

The Rescue Of The « General Ghetto“

By the end of December, Raoul Wallenberg moved into an appartment in Pest. He wished to be closer to the people. To avoid abduction he was permanently on the move. On the 23rd of December 1944 Eichmann and his troops left Budapest to escape from the Russians. Before Eichmann´s departure he possible ordered the elimination of the „General Ghetto“, a total of 70.000 Jews. Szalai, a member of the Arrow Cross Party, who helped Wallenberg toward the end of the war, later described before a postwar People´s Tribunal, that he (Szalai) appeald to General Gerhard Schmidhuber, as dynamite and armed troops surrounded the ghetto in preparation for ist comple destruction: “I warned him that according to Wallenberg´s communication, if he did not prevent this crime he would be called to account as a murderer.” The massacre was called off.

Preventing The Disolvement Of The « Internationl Ghetto“

By the beginning of January the „International Ghetto“ in which the protected Jews lived, were due to be dissolved. Some Jews were already transferred to the overcrowded „General Gehtto“. Wallenberg was successful in putting an end to the resettlement. On the 3rd of January 1945, Raoul Wallenberg expressed himself in a memorandum on the most important German military officials in Budapest: „The Legation obtained information that a furher 35.000 inhabitants of the International Ghetto were to be sent to the „General Ghetto“ on foot. This plan must be regarded, from all human consideration to be totally insane and bestial. The Royal Legation knows of no such plan having ever been attemted by a Government of any civilized state in history.“
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20. Budapest was Liberated

On the 18th of January 1945 the Red Army took Pest and on the 13th of February, Buda was taken. A total of 119.000 Jews were saved due to the efforts made by Wallenberg and other helpers.

Criminal-Of-War-Tribunal

In court cases in 1946 those responible for crimes committed during the war were tried and sentenced to death. Among the officials were Chief of Police, Lászlo Ferenczy, the minister for Foreign Affairs, Gábor Kemény, and Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi plus the minister for the Interior, Gábor Vajna. The organizer of the extermination plan, Adolf Eichmann, was found in Argentina in 1960. In Israel in 1961 he was sentenced to death. A year later he was executed. The German envoy to Budapest, Edmung Veesenmayer, was sentenced to twelve years imprisonment, in the „Wilhelmstraé.Process“, in Nuremberg. As early as December 1952 Veesenmayer was released due to an intervention from High Commissioner McClay.
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