19-03-2012, by Susanne Berger, Dr. Vadim Birstein,

A major challenge for researchers  in the Raoul Wallenberg case has always been how little original documentation about the young Swedish diplomat survives from his adult life before 1944. Few personal letters or other documents have been preserved.

In particular, such papers would fill in important information about Wallenberg’s personal and professional contacts before he was sent to Hungary in July 1944 on a humanitarian mission to aid its Jewish population. Hungary had been formally allied with Nazi Germany since 1940, but Germany had nevertheless moved to occupy the country on March 19, 1944. In a short few months, almost 500,000 Jews were deported to exterminations camps in Poland and Czechoslovakia. > More

Skymning i Budapest

19-01-2012, by Gellert Kovacs,

En berättelse om kampen för liv i andra världskrigets slutskede i staden där nazisterna lyckades inte genomföra sitt mål att förinta judarna.

Detta är också berättelsen om några av de största svenska hjältarna under 1900-talet, Raoul Wallenberg.

Läs mer om Skymning i Budapest>

Gellert Kovacs


Gellert Kovacs has worked on the Raoul Wallenberg project between 2009-2012. He has receiver of funds from the Swedish foreign ministry for research around the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg and his contacts in Hungary. He researched for 6 months in Hungarian archives in 2009. In 2010 made a presentation of report to committee at foreign ministry. He works as consultant for the Royal Museum of Military History for their exhibition on Raoul Wallenberg 2010-12 and have made several seminars about Raoul Wallenberg as well as other Swedish live-savers during the war.


  • “ Rapport till UD- Raoul Wallenberg, forskning I hans fotspår i Budapest 1944-45 ”   2010.  (Report for the foreign ministry-Raoul Wallenberg, a research in his footsteps in Budapest 1944-45” Only in Swedish language) This work was only for the ministry and not for the public.


  • And also articles for the electronic version of the historical magazine “Pennan och Svärdet”

Holocaust victims, heirs sue 5 Hungarian banks at US court

27-03-2010, ed. MTI

« MTI writes that a group of Holocaust survivors and heirs filed a lawsuit in Chicago on Thursday against several banks, including banks based in Hungary, demanding compensation of more than 2 million dollars. According to the plaintiffs, the National Bank of Hungary, the Erste Group Bank, the MKB Bayerische Landesbank and OTP Bank or their predecessors participated in the Holocaust, they were accomplices and instigators by appropriating the assets of Jewish victims »… « The plaintiffs,  who call themselves « Holocaust victims of bank theft » in the document submitted to the Illinois Northern District Court, also demand criminal compensation on top of the 2 million dollars plus interest »…. » In February this year, a similar lawsuit was filed against Hungarian state railways MAV, demanding compensation for the company’s involvement in deporting Jews during WWII. » …. »demand compensation worth a total of 240 million dollars. Based on nine years of research, they claim that MAV provided its carriages « being fully aware » that these would be used to transport 437,000 Jews to the gas chambers in Auschwitz between March and October 1944… »
-> More

Childhood and holocaust in Budapest 1944-1945

21-02-2008, by Susan Winter,

My testimony

Susan Winter Memory in Budapest (english)

Susan Winter Memory in Budapest (hungarian)

I will attempt to write down what happened to me and my family between 1944-1945. I am not sure I will succeed because I don’t know what are my own memories and what I recall because of what others told me.

On March 19, 1944 the Germans entered Hungary, rather Budapest, where I lived with my parents and grandparents. The same morning my father went to Eastern Train Terminal (Keleti P‡lyaudvar) to buy tickets for my mother and I to go to Di—szeg, which is today part of Romania, but at the time belonged to Hungary. He thought that it may be easier to survive in a small place than in a large city. > More

04. Hungary 1933-1944


Hungarys Relationship To NS-Germany:

Miklos Horthy

In 1933 Hungary looked twords Germany for direction, Hitler was chancellor. The Trianon Peace Treaty saw Hungary lose two thirds of its territory and up 60% of its population.
In 1920 Admiral Miklos Horthy was elected regent of Hungary, and because of his political allegiances Germany became Hungarys most important trading partner.
In 1938 Hungary regained a section of the lost territories, however in return an agreement to economic and political concessions was conceded.

Hungary Went To War:

In 1939 Pal Teleki came to power. With regards to Germany he was a very critical prime minister. Horthy decided going to war on Hitler´s side. In protest, Teleki commited suicide. In June 1941 Hungary declared war on the Soviet Union.
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05. Jews in Hungary


History Of The Jews In Hungary till 1933

In the third century Jews lived in the region we know now as Hungary. Following the first world war and the resultant collapse of the monarchy coupled with the effects of the 1918/19 revolution,
a new political anti-semitical ideology developed under the direction of Horthy.

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09. Wallenberg Appointed to Diplomatic Corp.:


Raoul Wallenberg proposed some new demands. The prime minister agreed to his demands. Wallenbergs appointment to the Diplomatic Corp. Filled him with pride:

« When a Wallenberg is chosen to serve his country abroad, it is his duty to live up to the Wallenberg standard.“

He was officially trading for Sweden. The fact that instructions and financial aid came from America was kept secret.

Preparing For Departure

Two days long, Wallenberg studied the minister for Foreign Affairs´ report on the situation in Hungary. Subsequently he made the following comment, regarding Koloman Lauer:

« I can´t remain in Sweden any longer. Every day costs people their lives. I shall prepare to travel as quickly as possible.“ Rabbi Ehrenpreis gave Wallenberg a letter for the chairman of the « Budapest Jewish Council“, Samu Stern. Ehrenpreis blessed the protestant Raoul before he departed. On saying goodbye to his friends, Raoul made the following comment regarding his task:

« I shall try and save as many lives as possible from the „Claws Of Death.“ On the 7th July Wallenberg flew to Berlin. Following a meeting with his sister he then took the train to Budapest.
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10. Raoul Wallenberg In Budapest


Arrival in Budapest

On the 9th of July 1944 Raoul Wallenberg arrived in Budapest. First he informed himself about previous Swedish measures taken to help the Jews. 650 Jews who had a strong bond to Sweden, were given passports. These were an exception to the rule.

The Swedish Protection Pass

Wallenberg got an office in the legation department C. He showed the Swedish envoy Carl Ivar Danielsson the protection pass („Schutzpass“) which he designed. The detailed pass stated the owner was under the protection of the swedish legation. The passes were signed by Danielsson. Following a meeting between Horthy and the head of police, Ferenczy, the protection pass was in August 1944 officially recognized by Hungary. Wallenberg was allowed to distribute 4.500 of the passes. The Minister of Foreign Affairs gave his consent. In a report to the swedish ministery of Foreign Affairs, Wallenberg stated: „In a way the majority of the Jews have to be awakened from their apathy with regard to their destiny. On the other hand these peoples apathy has changed since my last report.“
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Raoul Wallenberg’s Unexplored Intelligence Connections In Hungary

02-08-2007, by Susanne Berger and Catherine Schandl,

To fully untangle the complex relationships between the diverse factions of the Hungarian underground and Allied intelligence during the last months of World War II will take years of research. But new information is emerging daily and with it have come details which offer important opportunities in the ongoing investigation of the fate of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. Wallenberg disappeared in the Soviet Union in January 1945, after having helped to protect thousands Jews of Budapest from Nazi persecution. Soviet era claims that Wallenberg had died of a heart attack in a Moscow prison in July1947 or that he was executed have never been fully substantiated. > More