The Political Economy of Rescue: The Economic Aspects of the Raoul Wallenberg Case

11-12-2007, by Susanne Berger,

How a country’s economic interests influence its political decision making, including its human rights policy, is a timely question. While the political aspects of the Raoul Wallenberg case have been discussed at length, its economic dimensions have been largely ignored. There are indications that Swedish business interests came to bear quite significantly in all major phases of the case: Raoul Wallenberg ‘s selection for the humanitarian mission to Budapest; his work in Budapest; and his arrest and imprisonment. > More

Letter to the Swedish Konstitution Utskottet

19-10-2007, by Max Grunberg,

Dear Sir,

You have requested that the Riksdag’s Comitte on the Constitution examines the case Raoul Wallenberg trhough your email 28th of August 2007. With reference to your letter, I hereby...-> More
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Reply from the European Commission

05-09-2007, by Max Grunberg,

… I note that your letter requests action to be taken by the German President and the German Government. While sympathising with the request that you make, as far as the European Commission is concerned the diseapance of Mr Wallenberg is not a matter on which we have any information: an appeal to the Russian Government on this matter is not therefore strictly a matter for the Commission…
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Why Raoul Wallenberg Matters

01-09-2007, by Susanne Berger, Lorraine L. Borgolini, ed. Judiska krönikan

The Ongoing Search for Universal Values

The story of Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish businessman who went to Hungary in 1944 to rescue the Jews of Budapest, bears all the hallmarks of a Greek tragedy: Young and idealistic, he fought one totalitarian regime (Nazism) only to fall victim to another (Stalinism). As such, his case seamlessly links the two defining events of the 20th Century, the Holocaust and the Cold War. > More

Preliminary Research Report

13-08-2007, by Susanne Berger,

In 2002 (#), I received a grant from the Swedish Reference Group in the Raoul Wallenberg case to examine one specific issue: Who was the Swedish prisoner mentioned in the testimony of Polish prisoner of war Boguslaw Baj (1988 and 1992). As outlined in my original research proposal, identifying other Swedish prisoners in Soviet captivity in the time since 1940- present is both helpful and necessary for analyzing witness testimonies in the Raoul Wallenberg case. [# I had not applied for this grant at the time it was given, but had done so earlier, in 2001. (when it was refused). Research in Russia was postponed, by mutual agreement, due to health reasons, inaccessibility of certain files in Russia , new insights from Swedish and Russian archives which made an adjustment of the original proposal advisable and conflicting work schedules. On at least two occasions I offered to return the grant.] > More

Raoul Wallenberg’s Unexplored Intelligence Connections In Hungary

02-08-2007, by Susanne Berger and Catherine Schandl,

To fully untangle the complex relationships between the diverse factions of the Hungarian underground and Allied intelligence during the last months of World War II will take years of research. But new information is emerging daily and with it have come details which offer important opportunities in the ongoing investigation of the fate of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. Wallenberg disappeared in the Soviet Union in January 1945, after having helped to protect thousands Jews of Budapest from Nazi persecution. Soviet era claims that Wallenberg had died of a heart attack in a Moscow prison in July1947 or that he was executed have never been fully substantiated. > More

Det ungerska sambandet

02-08-2007, by Susanne Berger, ed. Dagens Nyheter

Ny information visar att Raoul Wallenberg hade täta förbindelser med ungerska motståndsrörelser och de allierades underrättelsetjänster, något som kan kasta nytt ljus över Sovjets intresse för honom..

DET SKULLE TA år av forskning att på allvar reda ut de komplicerade relationerna mellan de olika falangerna inom den underjordiska ungerska motståndsrörelsen och de allierades underrättelsetjänster under andra världskrigets sista månader. Men ny kunskap dyker upp dagligen, vilket öppnar viktiga möjligheter för den pågående undersökningen av Raoul Wallenbergs öde.
Utom västmakternas underrättelseaktiviteter är de sovjetiska operationerna och ännu viktigare den sovjetiska tolkningen av inhämtad information, av särskilt intresse för fallet Wallenberg. När ryssarna ryckte fram genom Östeuropa – rädda att västmakterna skulle vända sig mot Sovjetunionen efter att Nazi-Tyskland besegrats – sonderade och infiltrerade de olika lokala underrättelsenätverk. I synnerhet efter mars 1944, när nazisterna ockuperat Ungern, fanns en aktiv ungersk motståndsrörelse. Den bestod av nyckelgrupper kring den ungerske regenten Miklós Horthy, varav de främsta var MFM (Ungerska oavhängighetsrörelsen); den Ungerska fronten som bestod av socialdemokrater och småbrukarpartiet; olika judiska grupper, de ungerska pojkscouterna, ett välfungerande polskt underjordiskt nätverk samt kommunistiska kretsar.
År 1944 spelade även en grupp holländska och brittiska officerare som rymt från tyska krigsfångeläger en liten men viktig roll. De holländska officerarna hade nära kontakter med den svenska beskickningen i Budapest, varifrån de erhöll ett litet månatligt arvode (som före detta krigsfångar) och, senare, pengar till räddningsinsatser. > More

British intelligence (M16/SIS) Hungary nr 2: « The London-Budapest Game »

01-08-2007, by Catherine Schandl, ed. Lulu Books

Catherine Eva Schandl’s The London-Budapest Game (August 2007) is  the  true, documented  sequel (book 2) to Sword of the Turul, offering an exciting glimpse into the hidden world of the British Underground in World War II  Budapest – and its aftermath. Real names are used.

From 1991 to 2001, at the request of Raoul Wallenberg’s brother, a Swedish-Russian joint Commission was set up to investigate the fate of Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. The commission discovered that 3 Hungarian numbered prisoners secretly held in isolation in Vladimir prison, Soviet Union had been connected to the Wallenberg case. One of the three Hungarian numbered prisoners was Karoly Schandl, an idealistic young lawyer in Budapest who had been living near the Swedish Embassy on Gellert Hill. His incredible true story continues in The London-Budapest Game. Shocking new information is revealed for the first time, supported by top secret U.K. Archives documents which were uncovered by the author.  They reveal that members of the Dutch and Polish Underground had in fact been working together for the British Secret Service in World War II Budapest – and more! Also included are never before published excerpts from Schandl’s private writings. SMERSH interrogators had accused him of working for British Intelligence, and an « American spy. »

The anti-Nazi resistance group Karoly Schandl operated in was led by his childhood friend, Gabor Haraszty, a young Hungarian lawyer of Jewish origin. Gabor was known as MI6 British intelligence agent ALBERT. ALBERT was the most active MI6 agent in World War II Hungary. His group had links to MI9; British intelligence; Colonel Howie; the Dutch and Polish Underground; the Tito partisans; and a group of famous Jewish parachutists from Palestine, with whom they had planned to collaborate in Hungary.

In an ironic twist of fate, parachutist Joel Palgi once found himself mistaken by the Nazis for the British agent ALBERT.

It was a dangerous game, and only a few would survive … >More

Letter to the Swedish Minister of Foreign Office Carl Bildt

18-05-2007, by Max Grunberg,

On July 2007, 60 years will have passed since the alleged death of Raoul Wallenberg in Soviet captivity.

I am writing to ask your assistance in requesting your country’s government to actively pursue the search for Raoul Wallenberg by:

a. forming a ministerial committee in order to implement a governmental policy with the goal of immediately clarifying the fate of Raoul Wallenberg

b. requesting access to all relevant files from President Putin c. forming a Parliamentary inquiry to establish that all avenues have indeed been explored since the 2003 publication of the report “Kommissionen om den svenska utrikesledningens agerande I fallet Raoul Wallenberg” and the report “Raoul Wallenberg: Report of the Swedish-Russian working group,

Stockholm, 2000”… -> More
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Letter to the President and Ministers of the German Government

23-04-2007, by Max Grunberg,

Your Excellencies

RE : RAOUL WALLENBERG – HUMANITARIAN HERO

It is now 62 years since Raoul Wallenberg disappeared into Soviet captivity. His fate is still unknown.

As Germany now holds the Presidency of the European Union, I appeal to you to implement European Community Resolution C149/142, 17 May 1990 (f) Doc B3 936/90 to establish the fate of Raoul Wallenberg.

This resolution “Calls on the Russian authorities …..

To reopen the case of Mr. Raoul Wallenberg and… -> More
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