A brief Note on Grosheim-Krisko

04-06-2014 , by C.G.McKay

© C.G.McKay, May, 2014. This essay is made freely available as a contribution to public knowledge.

Hermann Grosheim-Krisko was employed as a Russian translator by the Swedish Legation in Budapest in 1944 and given a false identity as the Norwegian , “Henry Thomsen” . When the Red Army occupied Budapest, Grosheim-Krisko, like Raoul Wallenberg, was arrested by Smersh ,sent to Moscow and accused of anti-Soviet activities and espionage. Unlike Wallenberg ,however, he was eventually released in 1953 and turned up in due course in Stockholm where he provided the Swedes with further information while simultaneously claiming financial compensation for his years in Soviet custody. On the basis of an old file in Auswärtiges Amts Archive, new light is shed on Grosheim-Krisko’s family and background prior to his wartime years in
Budapest.

Read more> A Brief Note on Grosheim-Krisko.pdf

12 Responses to “A brief Note on Grosheim-Krisko”

  1. Servus. dit :

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    (1.) SERVUS, TUDOR AND C.MCKAY: (OR, AT LAST A BITE ? ):
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    What did I say ? Suddenly G. Craig McKay is back, turned up from the sunny side, he « tiptoed into », some years ago. And with the mention here of the word,  » TUDOR », the German battery-company,(for submarines/vehicles, torches, wellknown in Sweden), this I mentioned in my own, downunder quoted article (2014:5/20th of March) here at the RW-site (c/o G.Kovacs).

    Is there any connections, as McKay himself, use to point, at the « academical honour », the conditions, when using if so, other researchers findings ? Or a common sense of seren-dipity ? But McKay, mustn´t refuse to make a comment here, climbing down from… the perhaps one-way directed, communication, but anyway generous RW-site climate. Or have I, tramped right into McKay´s special subject field, in the same rude Swedish man-ner, as a certain 3rd secretary in Budapest, 1944… McKay´s information is of course, very interesting to process, but probably we´re as long from the truth, as usual.

    (But some wrote: –  » If you´re looking into the abyss, too long, the abyss might look back at you… » what most obsessed RW-researchers probably experienced.)
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    Well, anyway, Read all about it ! here ! One of the telephone numbers in Raoul Wallen-berg´s diary (due to Attila Lajos, sadly, reporting from the other side of the grave….) was No. 359, to Mr Johan C:son ASKER, inspector at the Lewenhaupt´s estate Sjöholmen leading to his relative who was:….

    « – — But C.E. ASKER (b.99) was here interestingly enough, senior engineer in the : Ackumulator Fabriks AB TUDOR, a company of German origin,(AFA) what during the 1920/30s produced in a cloaking relation, batteries for the German u-boots, in Sweden, against the Versailles-peace, rather usual then in Sweden,(Junker/Landswerk) but aro-und 1936, this production was located to Germany. – – – »

    Attila Lajos even mentioned the name in the diary, « Torsten BOLTENSTEIN, » interpreted by me, as Torsten BOLTENSTERN, (nobleman) a skilled Swedish Airforce/ABA Civil pilot, with perhaps contacts with Raoul Wallenberg, and a mr Boltenstern was married a von Dardel, relative.
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    Complete copy of my part of my comment here, regarding Tudor AB. (2014:5 20 March ) See the rest 2013/2014, about 50 parts.
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    THE SJÖHOLM`S ESTATE : TEL.: 359: (THE LEWENHAUPTS) : AND THE ASKER FAMILIES: HOLGER GRAFFMAN :
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    The Sjöholm estate was owned by the brother and sister: Adam LEWENHAUPT (b. 1861- d.26th of December 1944) and Charlotta Lewenhaupt, (b. 1855-1957) but there was even some kind of arrangement then with a lawyer, (Kindstrand) and an administrator/ inspector: =

    Mr Johan C:son ASKER, (b.15),farm inspector, with the directory phonenumber, » 359″, in Wallenberg´s diary, 1944, and even many years later, lease-holder/farmer (1980), of the estate BECKERHOF, 10 km:s south Katrineholm. He has close kinship with : =

    Mr Carl Edvard C:son ASKER. (b.99) (1961/ Consul-Peru) listed as navyengineer (reser-ve) in the same list, duting the 1930s, as J. Holger GRAFFMAN, the confident of Jakob Wallenberg, in the TRANSFER AB. ( Oil trade/currency) (GRAFFMAN organised a sep-arate capitulation meeting, in beginning of October, 1943, with US./OSS Abraham HEW-ITT, Felix Kersten and Walter Schellenberg, RSHA VI/SS/SD, at his address, house(villa) Blomsterstigen no. 15,(owned even no.11+13) Danderyd, Stockholm, the same street, where Per ANGER bought a house (villa), postwar, Blomsterstigen no. 9.)

    (Some km:s there to the south, Raoul Wallenberg´s enterprising, clever mother May von Wising, 1936, procure a bigger part of land, and parceled out lots, landspeculation, (Kevinge strand) built a house, where they lived from 1938, before moving to the city. )

    (GRAFFMAN issaid to have been an OSS/asset, as probably Per ANGER, when meeting Iver OLSEN, in August 13, 1944, in Stockholm.) (If Olsen directed his cloaking economic transactions, through, the U.S, affiliations, of TEXACO OIL, GOOD YEAR, perhaps conn-ections existed with Transfer AB,(Oil) that´s unknown.) (Graffman was in the Swedish navy committée,1940, purchasing the three Italian destroyers, later during delivery were captured by the British fleet, in June 1940, what soured the Swedish/British relations for the rest of war.

    But C.E. ASKER (b.99) was here interestingly enough, senior engineer in the : Ackumu-lator Fabriks AB TUDOR, a company of German origin,(AFA) what during the 1920/30s produced in a cloaking relation, batteries for the German u-boats, in Sweden, against the Versailles-peace, rather usual then in Sweden,(Junker/Landswerk) but around 1936, this production was located to Germany. 1939, there were 160 employees, in Sweden, and soon doubled, this workforce, in order to furnish the Swedish defence, with U-boats-batteries, and storage-batteries. 1944/45 the relations with Germany ceased, and 1945, the company, got administrated, by the Swedish bureau for liquidation of German economic assets, (=Flyktkapitalbyrån), by political pressure from the Allies, and ASKER probably quit his employment, by that. (The Asker boys, managed to marry, a string of female classic nobilities, from the families : Palmstierna, Bildt, Lilliehöök.) – – -/ End.
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  2. Servus. dit :

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    (2.) THE CASE OF HERMANN GROSHEIM-KRISKO:
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    (1.)  » It is typical of the imperfect state of our present knowledge that even the spelling of the man’s name is uncertain….  » « Grosheim-Krisko.  » – – -/Craig McKay. 2014
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    (2.)  » – Never speak ill of serendipity: it will often advance us in our search for informa-tion where more well-organized methods of discovery have hitherto drawn a blank.- /Craig McKay 2014.
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    (3.) – =  » The occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way : a fortunate stroke of serendipity | a series of small serendipities. » ORIGIN 1754: coined by Horace Walpole, suggested by The Three Princes of Serendip, the title of a fairy tale in which the heroes “were always making discoveries, by accidents and saga-city, of things they were not in quest of.” / Maybe even used by Stalin´s « NKVD-prin-ces »: Abakumov/Beria/Sudoplatov and SMERSH.
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    I agree, and it´s surpricing how shallow and naive, the Swedish Wallenberg-research, can appears, sometimes, and much materiel is still classified, the lack of prescripted protocols, and if conducted, sometimes obliterated, certain literature not accessed. But then, many years ago, excuseable, if there was a hope, of the release of Wallenberg, alive, what never occurred. But hard to blame anyone. (… »only » the socialdemocrats of course.)

    Instead many other inmates, especially Third Reich German officials, were repatriated, in a decade. But they were convicted, done their time, and could use the political East-West thaw, in the midfifties. As SS/SD Gustav Richter, 1955, and even Hermann Grosheim -Krisko, 1953. Apparently Raoul Wallenberg, seem to have been, labeled, with the same heading: (Pro)- German/foreign agent, due to his cellmates, then, Richter and AA/W. Roedl, as probably Grosheim-Krisko, but not convicted.

    Vilhelm Agrell, boils it down to this, when comparing the treatment of the other Swe-dish diplomats, and Red Cross-officials: None of them was arrested, but could leave for Sweden as soon as possible. Some other of the Neutrals personnel, (Swiss) were decla-red non grata, February 1945, LUTZ, BORN et al. The even jailed Swiss diplomats FELLER and MEIER, (February 1945) met the same procedure as Raoul, all three were U.S/ WRB-associates, with OSS-contacts/Berne, but were released, swapped, Wallenberg disapp-eared.

    Agrell & Lajos, even stressing, there are two cases, to respect : (a.) the mythological Wallenberg narrative, rather closed and finished, and (b.) the real story, investigations, with historical science methods, as its best, with open and not precipitated conclusions.

    Switzerland and USSR, then lacked diplomatic relations, but Sweden-USSR, kept such, since 1924. So what did the Russians had on Wallenberg ? As they even later denied all knowledge, about him. Agrell claims there were no special Soviet political/economic hang-ups with Sweden, postwar, motivating a punitive detention, hostage-taking , as a kind of message.
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    Susanne Berger /2003 :Stuck in…/ – – -FSB, Interrogation protocol of Grosheim-Krisko from 20 April, 1945, Grosheim-Krisko had worked in Hungary since 1941, including for the German Economic Administration [Deutsche Wirtschafts-dienst]. Through the years he had had business contacts with several Swedish firms. He obtained a position at the Swedish Legation, Budapest through the intervention of Nandor Batisfalvy, the Hung-arian Police Chief in charge of foreigners. Grosheim -Krisko was one of the many con-troversial figured who associated with Swedish Legation, Budapest. »- – –
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    THE TUDOR INDUSTRY IN SWEDEN :  » Grosheim-Krisko had business contacts with several Swedish firms.  » PERHAPS TUDOR AB ?
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    The Swedish TUDOR industry, was founded 1914, and became 1939, 25 years old. They had two plants, Gothenburg (Nol) and Stockholm (Sundbyberg). The latter produced probably storage-batteries, light batteries for torchs, dry elements, (Pertrix). Based on the revolutionary findings that ! Ledplates in dispersed sulphuracid, could accumulate electrical energy.

    Tudor made even rather important accumulators, batteries, for the Swedish defence. Anode-batteries for the Army, (ordnance) 106/126 volt, for the Navy, and the national Telegraph/telephone services.

    These were important for: radios,/telephones/ telegraph, and signalinstallations ! Tudor even made batteries, for small locomotives, main electrical energy stations, industrial trucks, ships, (of course lighthouseships/Finngrundet). Very important, for the Swedish u-boatsnavy, the only engine/force in submerged positions.

    The led, used in the production, must be very clean, 99,99 % and was imported from Peru, I believe.(for what C.Asker later became Consul), and cedarwood-plates, (later rubber-isolation) from Standard Battery Separator, Los Angeles, U.S.

    The impressing Board of the A-B Tudor, held : a High marshal (riksmarskalk),(Wenner-sten) a navy captain,(Sundblad),one admiral (Wijkmark) two bankers (Philipson/ Lett-ström) a director-general (Hamilton), and mr C.E. ASKER, the navy-engineer.

    No doubt, this industry, was of high importance, for the Swedish defence-efforts, (just torchs in the tents) ,but how the connections,with the Third Reich, 1939-45, worked, if there were any, is unknown, here. But any German assets, in Sweden, had to be real-ized, and delivered to the Allies, (Safehaven) and the WW2-reparations, 1945, like then, the Tudor AB. (In Sweden as in Switzerland).

    1938, there were about 3.900 German companies, in Sweden the Swedish Tudor AB, was (prob.) ranged as the third biggest in Sweden, 1945, after Landsverk, Långviks mines, with: 250 employees, and 5.8 millions mkr, worth of production = 120 millions today/ SEK.)
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    CONCLUSIONS:
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    The connections between TUDOR AB, and Raoul Wallenberg, is more than, weak, only through the one of the ASKER family, and the telephonenumber: Katrineholm (=city) No. 359, Sjöholm ( =estate), in his retrieved diary. If a cloaking operation, took place, con-cerning the Tudor AB, 1944/45 perhaps German patents, were received, or so is un-known, but the Wallenbergsphere, was known for such measures, but that´s not really an option.

    But when C. McKay gives new facts about Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, the employee, at the Swedish legation in Budapest, 1944/45, jailed in Moscow, together with Raoul Wall-enberg, (suspected of being German agent), but released alive, 1953, gives way for bit tighter connection, especially with Karl Woldemar Grosheim-Krisko, the brother, and even their parents, (German Balts) in Latvia.
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    KARL WOLDEMAR GROSHEIM-KRISKO`S SCIENTIFIC WORKS:
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    Then, McKay gives more facts about the Tudor AB, (Riga 1935) (father, engineer, and company-commissioner, of Tudor company) and Karl Woldemar G-K, who was a prof-essional chemist, in Third Reich, especially active with scientific findings/experiments, about accumulating electrical energy, in ledplates, anode corrosion, etc., publishing his results in German scientific journals,(1942/1944) « still standing » as scientific referen-ces.

    Something to do with: accumulators, batteries, led. The Tudor´s main products, I pre-sume ?

    (1.) The book: Die anodische Korrosion des Bleies in Blei-Schweifelsäure-Sammlern / Karl Woldemar Grosheim-Krisko.(1942)

    (2.) Measurement of the viscosity of Pb-Sn alloys with the vibrating-sphere viscometer. (Z. Metallkunde .(1942)

    (3.) The determination of oxygen in led. The reaction of hydrogen sulphide at high temperature, leading to the formation of water./Z. f. Metall. /K.W. Grossheim-Krisko et al.(reference as late as 1985)

    (4.) As reference in the Swedish report: 1977: Tillverkning av bly-titan kapsel = Management of radioactive wastes, and non-radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities

    (5.) As reference in a modern report: Led in, submarine/underwater cables. (France/ Lyon)

    (6.) Qouting myself, from my comment of 2013 , based on G.Engblom´s: Himmlers peace: The Laborator/Chemist, Åke Grönwall, had a patent concerning sterilization of water, by ultra-violet rays, 1943, sold to German Wehrmacht, had his office, a patent-bureau, The Sterilisator AB, at Wallenberg´s former address, (before the Meropa-peri-od).Grönwall was probably in-place in the Third Reich scientific complex, was a close confident within the Wallenbergsphere, (Arran Hamilton/ =Edgar Klaus lawyer) ) and acted even as a separate capitulation messenger from RFSS/Himmler, twice, 1943/ 44. /Göran Engblom (2008)
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    — –  » Wallenberg´s employee, Hermann, G-K, had been active in Hungary, since 1941, in a Third Reich economic administration, (Deutsche Wirtschaftsdienst), 1944. He had been recruited by the Swedish legation in Budapest as a Russian translator on the rec-ommendation of the Hungarian police official Nandor Batisfalvy, a close collaborator of Anger and Wallenberg in Budapest, and assigned a false identity as Henry Thomsen, a Norwegian. Hardly standard diplomatic practice. « – – -/ source C. McKay.
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    * No, but could be interpreted as a cloaking operation, for hiding a German Nazi-offi-cial, in Budapest. Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, could had been recruited through special contacts with for instance, Germany/Sweden and Tudor AB, and Raoul Wallenberg could have been responsible, for Grosheim-Krisko, (but he wasn´t) but were in other dubious pure Arrow Cross/Nazi-recruitments, and as McKay puts it, « they don´t needed another translator, as Valdemar Langlet and his Russian wife Nina, spoked Russian. »
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    * (If not someone, needed Grosheim-Krisko, for secret communications/negotiations, in the Russian language, perhaps utilized by Wallenberg, for secret capitulation talks (Ger-many/Soviet), in Stockholm, but that´s a more far-fetched than ever, more of a joke, and if so, the German ought to have informed the Swedish official, during his visit, here 1953, but such information must probably hade been suppressed instantly.)
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    LARS BERG : 1949/1956:
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     » The passports was distributed, to many Hungarians, but even to known Nazis,and Hungarian aristocrats. » /- – -Lars Berg 1949.

    Lars BERG, Swedish, UD/secretary, in Raoul Wallenberg´s Budapest team, the B-section, 1944, claimed in a letter to Rudolph Philipp, as late as 1956: –  » When complaining about his (Berg´s) employments, of H.THOMSEN and M.TOLSTOY, Lars Berg replied:  » – Raoul Wallenberg´s many employments of Nazis, Arrow Crossmen, and other, quite more « uglier » people, than Thomsen/Tolstoy, was a bigger problem, and more damag-ing, than advantageous for the Swedish interests, together with his huge production of passports « ./- – – due to Attila Lajos diss. : The Hero and the Victims. (2004)
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    MIA LECHE-LÖFGREN : (THE SWEDISH WALLENBERG-COMMITTEÈ, 1946):
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    Even one Swedish female, liberal witness, Mia Leche-Löfgren, (later in the « Wallenberg-committée » 1946, together with Lise Meitner, Raoul´s neighbor, 1938-44) claimed Raoul Wallenberg: « didn´t dare return to Sweden, after this doubtful, passportsbusin-ess in Budapest, when he even furnished Nazis, with them. » /Source : Swedish Paris-ambassador, mr Westman and his secretary Lennart Petri / due to Attila Lajos diss. : The Hero and the Victims. (2004)
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    MY SUBSEQUENT QUESTIONS: « GIVE A FREE REIN TO IMAGINATION :  » THE BOMB…  » ???
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    Did Hermann GROSHEIM-KRISKO had businesscontacts with Swedish companies ? If so, with whom ? Perhaps TUDOR AB.

    What happened with Hermann, and perhaps more important – with his brother, Karl Woldemar, the Nazi German scientist ? Are there any connections between the two, post war ? Was Karl Voldemar a high qualified scientist, a  » Zukunfts-mensch » ? No one seems to know, or want to know.

    Perhaps Karl Woldemar, emigrated to U.S., as his works, are quoted, there, around late 1940/1950, when the U.S. nuclear research must have peaked. Or in some « Operation Paperclip » case ?

    Karl Woldemar, no doubt, was even close connected, with the battery/accumulator research, sulphuracid and led´s performance, the main TUDOR interest then, and very important for the German submarine war efforts. As late as 1977, the Swedish nuclear science service , KBS, referred, (above) to his earlier works, when suggesting a way to produce, a  » titan-capsule », to store nuclear wastes, for very long, eternal times, per-haps.
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    CONCLUSIONS : PERHAPS , ABAKUMOV /BERIJA / SUDOPLATOV… :
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    Perhaps when the Soviet´s supersuspicious NKVD-dreamteam, Abakumov, Beria, and perhaps Sudoplatov (responsible for the Soviets intelligence activities directed against the U.S. nuclear weapons development), were informed about Raoul Wallenberg, soon checking the Stockholm´s telephone directory: – Hhmmm… what do we got here….?

    (1.)….Raoul and Lise Meitner (German nuclear scientist/Jewish refugee, 38´) are neigh-bors on the same floor, Bragevägen no. 12, for years …

    (2.) … and Lise Meitner was employed, within a : Wallenbergsphere -foundation/ Tech-nical Highschool, dealing with nuclear science, some blocs to the North…

    (3.) ….and Raoul´s office, in the same house as the U.S. legation  » – if so they must have congratulated themselves. (As finding someone locked up in Sweden, neighbor with Andrei Sacharov, the father of the Soviet´s Hydrogen bomb.)

    (4.) Lise Meitner, nominated for the Nobelprize, was even very well acquainted with the German nuclear scientists, her colleagues W.Heisenberg, O.Hahn, scientific stars that, never managed/dare to produce a Nazi nuclear weapon, (and by the way couldn´t stand Jews as nuclear scientists…)

    (5.) Raoul Wallenberg´s half-brother, Guy von Dardel, was/became even a wellknown nuclear scientist. Due to Leif Leifland, former Foreign Department, cabinet secretary, it was Guy von Dardel, who examined if, the Soviet submarine U-137, stranded near the Swedish Karlskrona navybase October 1981, was equipped with nuclear torpedoes/ mines. It was./Source : Ingrid Carlberg (2012)

    Guy seemed deep involved in research about neutrons, and why not here: presents  » – – – the Hungarian Jew , Leo Szilard/Leo Spitz (b.98 in Budapest), later refugee, collabo-rated with Walter Zinn to research neutron emissions. They discovered that two fast neutrons are probably emitted in the fission process, and that the element uranium might sustain a chain reaction. » – – – /Szilard became later after studies in Germany (Kaiser Wilhelm Institut/Britain, a very important nuclear scientist, in the U.S. Manhattan atomic bomb project. (It was on a street corner in London, in October 1933, that Szilard first conceived of the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction. ) As many others, of the main Manhattan-scientist, was alleged, harbor some Left-sympathies. ( During the 1970 /80s, even pure then « frightening » Neutron-bombs were produced.)

    (6.) The Wallenbergsphere, had early some big shares in the Norska Hydro A/S, what produced heavy water for Nazi- Germany, (for nuclear purposes) and was raided/ bom-bed by the British/Allies, the Telemark SOE/sabotageraid, what damages, the Wallen-bergsphere later paid, was ready re-built, after five weeks.Sorry SOE.

    (7.) The 27th of July, 1945, U.S. ambassador, Herschel Johnson, visited the unknowing Swedish government, to discuss, some (perhaps forced) U.S. options on the Swedish uranium mines, about 10 days before the U.S. nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 6th and 8th of August, 1945.

    (8.) A month earlier, 27th of June, 1945 the mysterious death (shot) of the Norwegian doubleagent Kai Holst Milorg/SIS in Stockholm, who was even informed by secret mic-rofilms, about the heavy water production in Rjukan, as the Lillehammer intelligence coup, 1945, and probably cultivated connections with the Soviet legation. (No. 8, far-fetched, but could be mentioned, in the context.

    (But even wellknown, Ian Fleming, (a MI6-official/knew K.Philby) mentioned in his first book about James Bond/Casino Royal, that  » Bond, had shot an Japanese encipher exp-ert, in New York, and a Norwegian doubleagent in Stockholm, to earn this 007-license.  » /What then probably shocked professor T. Pryser and his Holst-research./
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    So this ending nuclear « scoop »-conclusion, transcending everything, up to this day, of credible reasons behind Raoul Wallenberg´s detention and disappearance, in the nuclear meltdown (härdsmälta) the Wallenberg case, in fact has developed in, through the years. (But « quantity transcends in quality », like boiling water to steam – especially in a nuclear reactor. )
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    THE SOVIETS AND THE GAME-CHANGER : THE BOMB ! :
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    « – – – But the Soviets NKVD had singled out the atomic problem,of supreme importance as early as 1940.- – -Beria was especially interested in nuclear fission,and urged Stalin, 1940 to launch an atomic weapons programme.- – -Sergo Beria, (son) claims that Rob-ert Oppenheimer visited in secret, Beria´s home, in Moscow for two weeks, 1939.- – – Stalin knew already about the Bomb, through L. Beria, when Truman informed him, the 24th of July, 1945 during the Potsdam conference, but pretended calm. Two years from that a Soviet Bomb was constructed, and tested 1949.- – – (Source : SK./2003)
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    But how did you imagine the nuclear reaction, was discovered, if not by « giving the free reins to imagination  » ? Or 90% work, and 10% inspiration, they use to say. If so, Raoul Wallenberg´s fate could perhaps be solved, accepted, the hypothesis is no doubt seri-ous plausible, not that strange, out from the above, wellknown facts. But I never heard anyone even think loud about it, but not even dismissed it. Not an option, maybe ?
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    If the Russians suspected Raoul, had knowledge about the nuclear reaction, and con-tacts, the NKVD´s intelligence efforts, must have been top-top-secret, from 1940/45 and mustn´t be known to the United States, but concealed during all conditions. Or did he, (viewed well-orientated), tell them about, the Swedish/U.S. nuclear efforts, in a very sensitive military/political moment of the war, when very few people knew about, or could imagined the nuclear weapon/energy ?

    These days, 1945, the three Allies even really stepped up, their search of NaziGerman scientists / technologies/industries/missiles/jets (+signalintelligence (Lillehammer/ Stella Polaris/Operation Paperclip), and in the occupied Germany, a technical break-through in being, beyond former examples.

    What other reason, could explain the very harsh extreme special and secret/denied Soviet detention of Wallenberg , up to 1957 ? (Could be, that he could provide names of agents, etc. damaging for Russian interests, and even Sweden/U.S., by that shaping a common interest of neutralize him. Or did he built secret OSS/Swedish-C-bureau/ Hun-garian agentnet-works, for future cold war needs ? Why must he disappear ? )

    Craig McKay claims that when Swedish investigators dismissed the Pavel Sudoplatov´s memoirs, too easy, when dealing with the Soviets espionage against U.S. nuclear weap-ons, 1940/ 50s, but readily accepted the facts about M. Kutozov-Tolstoy´s alleged denunciation of Raoul Wallenberg, 1945. The general printed information about the Count, were although, there, in many ways, wrong.

    But what « terrible » fatal secrets about Raoul, could have been known by the Count ? That weren´t obvious – for Raoul´s other general surroundings, during the short chaotic sixmonth- mission ?
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    « MORE PAIN » FOR MCKAY ?
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    My own, more limited, humble wish, is that G. Craig McKay must check up who was:
     » MURRAY PAYNE » (ask) Torsten Boltenstein (from) Ihaj von Plummen  » – the alleged rebus in Raoul´s diary of 1944/45 ? So  » More Pain » for McKay.
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  3. Servus. dit :

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    (3.) MORE AROUND THE BIRTH OF THE BOMB :
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    The Princes of Serendipity, are here again ! Stumble, right in, over one another, into chapter no. 29 in Vilhelm Agrell´s : Venona: the Trails of an intelligence war. (in Swe-dish) (2003) (With the depressing dedication : To the memory, of the cheated, betrayed, and forgotten.)
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    THE ATOMIC SPY : « SVEN ».
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    « – – -The NKGB-defector, and encipher at the Soviet embassy in Stockholm, V. PETROV revealed, 1954, remembering a cable adressed to his fieldchief, Kirsanov, about a visit over Stockholm, destination Copenhagen, by one security official, and a Soviet nuclear specialist. This journey took place the last days of October 1945, returning, 20th of November to Moscow,in fact, 1945, not (!) 1946, and were three Russians. (Petrov´s suggestions, were in part wrong, due to the Swedish police investigation, 1954.)

    Their mission was to meet a distiguished Swedish nuclear physics, employed at a nuc-lear fission institute, close to Stockholm, but must take place in Denmark, too danger-ous in Sweden. But who was this  » Sven  » ? What institution then ? Must be the Science academy´s institute, later the Nobel-institute, headed by the professor Manne Siegbahn. Two male employees became of interest, one of them, * Lise Meitner´s friend, Sigvard Ekelund, postwar head of the International Atomic commission (Vienna), but nothing came out of the investigation. But Sudoplatov´s memoirs, mention, two situations, with perhaps some connection with  » SVEN ». – – –
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    NIELS BOHR:
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    – – -Because some problems had appeared in the Soviet´s nuclear programme, and the chainreaction. What to do ? Send someone to the U.S., and the Manhattan project, for secret meetings, with scientists, or send professor Kapitsa, the Russian scientist, to meet Niels BOHR , the Danish high qualified nuclear scientist.

    But the mission was instead then ordered to be accomplished by two NKGB-officials, science specialists. But only one of them, was permitted to meet Bohr, and then he manage to analyze the point where the Soviets failed, to reach the nuclear chain reac-tion. A success for Pavel Sudoplatov, and others involved. (But it sounds like a fairytale, as someone could carry the nuclear secret formula in his wallet, « Here, read this piece of paper – do just like that, and… !  » )

    Bohr arrived to U.S. late in 1943, and harbor, like some other contemporary scientists, some healthy personal opinions, of the risks with nuclear weapons, the international cooperation about it, and the need of transparency, to avoid an armsrace, post WW2.

    In May 1944, Bohr met Churchill, who despised him as a nut, later Roosevelt, but the latters decided to keep all facts secret, (Quebec meeting.) and by the way, keep an eye on Bohr, to stop any leak, and suggested perhaps internment of Bohr, « near of a deadly crime » (Churchill) and Bohr then became more cautious.

    The 11th of August, 1945 two days after the A-bombings of Japan, Bohr published an article in the Times, with his opinions, and returned late in August to Denmark. (And 1953, the Rosenberg couple was electrocuted in New York, for some kind of alleged nuclear « piece-of-paper », espionage, after a dubious,most anti/Soviet/communist/ Jewish political trial,(1950) as a reminder of what was on stake, but some say, most to blame someone , for the war-ravaged Russians, unexpected nuclear breakthrough, although not possible without the Russian´s own qualified scientists, with the world´s first particle accelerator then.
    ————————————————————————-
    Leaks, what today perhaps have transcend in « intelligence-leaks », damaging for ex. NSA, but seem m.o.l., individual efforts, primarily aimed, for rescuing of the mankind.- – – (Snowden vs Pussy Riot, exchange rate.. ?)
    ————————————————————————-
    TAGE ERLANDER :
    ————————————————————————–
    « – – -The Swedish later prime minister, Tage ERLANDER, labor,partyleader (PM 1946-1969), before Olof Palme, had some contacts with Swedish nuclear scientists, (29th Sep-tember, 1945) and got their, opinions of Bohr´s activities. He met even Hans KOCH, Danish under-secretary of state, Bohr´s close colleague, and heard of his suggestions to shape a close and « peaceful cooperation, trust, together with the Russians, to avoid a brewing global conflict. »

    (Erlander even founded the Swedish Atomic Committée, in November 1945, Sweden was here fast to catch up with the new technology) This opinions seem to have been a coll-ective, international political understanding, those days, as perhaps the global environ-mental climate crisis, of today, not complete isolated from the nuclear energy´s deve-lopment.

    (Tage Erlander was even during the war, under-secretary of state, at the Social depart-ment,/Möller/ and was in fact responsible, for the Swedish much critizised (14) deten-tion camps, for foreigners, deserters, (German socialists/ Brandt/Wehner et al ) Swedes, anyone suspected, of anything suspicious (some times 1.600 inmates). De facto based upon the same « habeas corpus » rules, what the Russians primarily used against Wallen-berg, 1945.

    Meaning detention without trial/conviction,of a legitimate court, as today a reality, in U.S. Guantanamo Bay camp. If Erlander postwar, Pm,1946, by that, accessed an under-standing of the general reasons for the internment/detention measures, or later reacted against it, during the critical period for Raoul Wallenberg, 1946, can´t be determined here, but he must had experienced the conflict, I hope.

    Anyway, Erlander´s own personal performance was as distant from this dubious task, as possible, of some reason. But Erlander happened to say, around 1955, to Soviet diplom-ats, that : –  » Wallenberg´s mission, what at least started (sic!) – as a humanitarian rel-ief project…. « , – what then, was viewed as fatal slip.
    ————————————————————————
    LISE MEITNER :
    ————————————————————————
    – – -Pavel Sudoplatov claims that Sweden had information, 1945 or 1946, of the tech-nical specifications of the bomb, received through the Swedish intelligence secret ser-vice, but never contemplated to construct one, then. But a experimental reactor was later built, based on 5 tonnes of imported, just Norwegian (!) Norsk Hydro A/S prod-uced,  » &  » Wallenbergsphere » heavy water .

    The only one then, with direct knowledge of nuclear fissions,chainreactions, in Sweden, was Lise Meitner, the Jewish refugee, nuclear scientist, (Raoul´s neighbour, 1938-44) in the out-of-the-way-spot, Sweden, still was those days. The German nuclear scientist, Otto HAHN, received the Swedish Nobelprize, 1944,(10th December) for the discovery of the nuclear fission, (take that ! ) what many said was in fact Meitner´s invention. The prize Hahn picked up, 1946,but as late as 1943, he met his close old friend, Lise Meit-ner in her home, during a Nazi-german sponsored, series of lectures (and that!) in Swe-den.

    A. Vaksberg claims (1995) that mrs Zoya Rybkina (NKVD fieldresid./Stockholm) arranged meetings with Meitner and the Soviets, and Meitner was even in contact with the * Brit-ish, Cyril Cheshire/SIS-Stockholm, (and he, with Raoul Wallenberg/=C. McKay /Excer-pts…2011) + (*My comment 2013/Meitner)

    But the Soviets Danish operation observed by V. Petrov (defector), could have been a cover operation, as the Russian Stockholm embassy, was not viewed as, too reliable, but infiltrated, by agents, and that the Swedish « SVEN », in fact, could have been the far better informed, Niels BOHR. « / – – – Agrell.

    So some things, could have been developing in the dark, the critical period of Wallen-berg´s disappearence, not possible to understand those days, but for those direct in-volved, not even for those agentoperatators in the field. (but V. Agrell never mentions, and don´t claiming a connection, what so ever, here, neither with Meitner or Wallen-berg.)
    ————————————————————————
    BUT WHY NOT ? WALLENBERG ?
    ————————————————————————
    But the option that the nuclear secrets, became Wallenberg´s fate, can be as relevant, as all the others, from just: (1.) The Russian (sub?)human factor, the usual Soviet « mis-understandings » (Agrell), (2.) to looting of Jewish gold (Jangfeldt), (3.) in collaboration/ contrabands with the  » famous » Hungarian resistance, (Kovacs), (4.) as separate German capitulation mediator (Engblom et al ). But as Agrell asks : – » Why should the Russians arrest him ? He answers : Why not ?  »

    Sweden´s cautious policy then, to hide all her secret close cooperation with the Wests´s intelligence services could even that, be a serious, heavy enough reason. (Out from that, this didn´t motivated the later official, (Pm G. Persson) excuse, due to T. Pryser.) A situation non-existent today, but seems now at the other extreme. But as Vadim Bir-stein asks: – What did the Soviet´s MVD, security organ knew, that Wallenberg knew ? But no one ever ruled out the nuclear factors, what´s anyway rather surpricing, but I will of course, not insist, too much, make a (perhaps bigger) fool of myself, just in vain.
    ————————————————————————-
    CONCLUSIONS:  » RECHERCHE LA FEMME ?  »
    ————————————————————————-
    Agrell´s study, claims that the Swedish secret police, then didn´t know, that Lise MEIT-NER, in fact was a more distinguished, scientist, than her superior, professor Manne SIEGBAHN,(Nobelprize, 1924.)

    The more, than biased, politically profiling police, Danielsson, were probably as despis-ing against Lise Meitner, as Zelda (nee SEPSELOWITZ) Rifka-Hait,(b.20-Latvia/Kuldinga) even she, Jewish refugee from the Holocaust, but from Latvia/ Riga , survived the Ger-man/Latvian massmurder, (27.000 Jews, all ages) in the Riga Rumbula-forest, two days, December 1941, two month after Babij Jar/Kiev) (Witness, 1971 (BRD) in the trial aga-inst Viktors Arajs,  » SD/SS-Rollkommando » in Latvia.)

    Two women, unable to realize in full, a scientific talent (nuclear technology) or repor-ting of, as surviving victim, from the even that, as, game-changing, terrible industrial genocide and looting, experiences, executed by the Third Reich,/SS, with collaborating  » Latvian local pals ». Today we can probably recognize the impossibility, of that, and much more, those days.

    All political activities, conducted by refugees, was strictly forbidden, could result in int-ernment/ detention/jail, by Mr T. Erlander. But, by that official Sweden kept on as some what retarded, with narrow ,views of refugees, Jews/women/ Shoa -victims/ socialists, (lesbians?), reminding slight of the Third Reich´s policy against selected « pariahs. » (My comment 2013/1/ Z.Hait)

    Lise Meitner was « invisible », under the radar, (what she probably could have invented…) (left for Britain 1960) and Zelda Hait, must be silenced, and stigmatized, « ostracized » of Danielsson, not to disturb, even Iver Olsen´s OSS/WRB/C-bureau´s Baltic rescueproject of nationals, Estonian/Latvian elite, perhaps some of the Rumbula executioners, (but not one single Jew). (Meitner had « company » from the secret police, every time she met a foreign scientist, in Sweden. But any personal contact, Raoul and Lise is not confirmed.)

    But the whole Holocust narrative, as we know it, was postponed during the Cold war, of some reasons, probably, the German rearmament/Nato membership, 1955, and by acc-epting that, we´re accepting to be ruled, manipulated by the political/military/ estab-lishment, perhaps a lesson for the future – if there will be one.

    The OSS/Baltic sea-operations, what in fact then, seemed far more important than Rao-ul Wallenberg´s Budapest-mission, what focused, even by him, just on, well-to-do, Jewish businessmen, with Swedish contacts, (here, Raoul even strenghtened the prin-ciples of selection.) This due to the few number of the written reports, WRB/OSS- arch-ivals concerning Wallenberg. This is just to realize, when looking back.

    Against the OSS/Baltic sea, mixed agent/refugee-operations, of 1944, (no doubt paving the way for the Russian mistrust of 1945). (As the refugee wave of 30.000 Baltic natio-nals 1944, in spite of that, the Swedish reactionary elite, not that, grateful, rallied for the just 146 Balts in the Wehrmacht service/uniforms, 1946, against to be extradited, to Latvia (incl. one Arajs-member), but kept just quiet about the 2.500 German Reichs-deutsche soldiers, travelling in the same direction, for Siberia, and the Holocaust was not invented then…) Raoul´s mission, seemed in printed OSS-reports then, not even a sideshow, but later suiteable used as a fig leaf for the Swedish, innocent, but most black (history) hole.
    ————————————————————————–
    THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST: COMMON METHODS :
    ————————————————————————–
    But why didn´t the Soviet´s used, (perhaps well founded) accusations of: spying, looting antisoviet-activities, against Raoul Wallenberg, in a secret trial or a « We got him ! » show-trial, if they were so ruthless demoniac, in other cases,so biased/suspicious of the West, Sweden, or was the disappearance of Raoul, in fact a soft, personal treatment, into obli-vion, from day one, based on hard serious facts ?

    (As the Swedish court, 1941, in the real, « showtrial » ,the trial against the Ernst Woll-weber sabotagegroup, against German shipping, lifted the (always) for spy-trials top secrecy, in order, not only to facilitate this secret, classified informations, direct to RFSS/Himmler, and Heydrich, in public, but even to pave the way for a ban on the Swedish Communist Party /SKP.

    Ernst Wollweber received four years in prison, without proof of activity in Sweden, but SKP survived, as the in fact, then only legal communist party (!), in the German-occupied Europe, RSHA/Berlin must have gnashing their beast-teeth. (As someone unknown, pro-bably in the « justicebusiness » leaked the similar, and classified British SIS/OSS Rick-man-sabotage group, trial/case/documents, to the German cultural attaché/(architect) Hans Schreiber/ Abwehr/AST-Stockholm )

    (The secret police-superintendent, Martin Lundqvist, visited Berlin/SS/Heydrich in March, 1941, wishing to visit, even kz-lager Sachsenhausen for political prisoners, then deliv-ering the Norwegian, Wollweber-man, Hjelmen to Heydrich, for torture, and even-tually, beheading in SS/Brandenburg, May 1944. But Lundqvist´s brother, the judge, (rådman) Folke Lundqvist´s economic criminality, against his wards,(postwar convicted) he never took serious, as state prosecutor, the latter living in the same house complex, (7C /The German m.a.office) as the U.S. legation and Meropa /Wallenberg/7A). (So the Swedes can,  » Yes they can »…be as evil, as people in Ber-lin and Krem-lin, if needed.)
    ————————————————————————
    RAOUL WALLENBERG:
    ————————————————————————
    Wallenberg wasn´t´ released, or tried, the disappearance, developed into a denial/ foreclosure of what had happened, cellmates were instructed to forget their memories of personal contacts. Experienced criminologists claim, that when people disappear, or being killed, the decisive motive use to be find in the main activities, of the victim: bus-iness, politics, crimes…etc. But Wallenberg claimed innocence, not involved in any kind of §58 , »anti-soviet » activities.

    But Raoul Wallenberg, probably, couldn´t have been, much of a spy/agent, recruiter, resistanceman, « looter », his rescue mission, was not questioned, he was not arrested by his « field »-performance in Budapest, but by direct order from Moscow, 17th January as later, the two Swiss diplomats, all three with WRB-contacts, as common denominator.

    But Sweden didn´t report this, correct complete, (as the British, their SOE´s agents) only his ad-hoc, diplomatic title, 3rd secretary, with obvious tremendous: warrants,
    (but not, nota bene ! , establish contact with the Red army´s Budapest battlegroup), cash/accounts,, networks, (German officials) all what then could be compared with Allan Dulles, the OSS-official, U.S./spider-in-the web, in Berne.) (Agrell) .

    But not even that, could have been a decisive, reason, it was not about punishing Swe-den, not a hostage-taking, for future swapping. /Agrell. Remains, his businessactivities, and networks. But from our point of view, today, with normal respect for diplomats, human rights, Swedish (foreign) diplomatic relations, a young person, cooperative, (naive?) without special « spoiling », public antecedentia, not married/no children, borned in a mighty financial dynasty, with many Soviet business/trade connections, but even with some of the Allied´s WRB/OSS/SIS-offices,he although experienced a fate,in many aspects, beyond understanding, then and now.
    ———————————————————————–

  4. Servus. dit :

    ———————————————————————-
    (4) .SWEDISH DIPLOMATIC COMMITTMENTS :
    ———————————————————————-
    Sweden had promised undertake to protect the Soviet Union´s national, diplomatic int-erests, in Hungary, what including the Soviet POWs, (as the millions in German camps) what as we know, were treated very bad,in camps in Veszkeny. (Western Hungary).

    Probably, they before that were kept,in total misery, no doctors, and health care/ sanit-ary,, in the dark of the old fortress, Komarom, (close East) on the shore of Danube, for over a year, what readily Danielsson, accepted.

    But Sweden mismanaged this mission, alleged collected instead possible military infor-mation, (Lt Col. H. Wester. Mil.att. ) and called them  » animals, beasts », what they prob-ably became, after the Hungarians (and Sweden´s), bad brutal, treatment of them.

    The Swedish legation, Wallenberg, instead chose to cooperate with the Westallieds POWs, which the Hungarians permitted to live like  » lords » ,rather ordinary free lifes in Budapest, employment, salary, to qualify for the West´s benevolence, as the Dutch-man, Gerrit van der Waals, et al. That choice, maybe had been correct, just in order, in Budapest, the Fall of 1944, but….

    It was instead the Kutozov-Tolstoy couples, who identified the Soviet POWs dire situ-ation, and organised a hospital, probably of the same reasons – to be met with future benevolence, from all parts. (As they even earlier, took care of the Belgium Pows, in the same way/C.McKay/ Excerpts…) (Mrs Myriam Kutozov-Tolstoy, had a written warrant
    signed by the Swedish ambassador I. Danielsson, 1st of September, 1944./Blue Horns publishing)

    But Sweden was not under some international diplomatic committment/plight to rescue/ protect the Budapest Jews, Hungarians, but like the opportunistic Hungarians, Sweden striving to access as much possible U.S./WRB benevolence, 1944/45, for the future. Perhaps a problematic, careless, negligence, an unsuspecting Swedish attitude here, what « paid off », bad later.
    ————————————————————————
    Sweden´s military intelligence, the C-bureau/Bonde and U.S./OSS, even dispatched the secret agent, Thorsten Akrell, for Budapest, in September, as courier, with OSS/radio-transmitters, in the Swedish diplomatic mail. Wallenberg was mentioned in a secret OSS cable, in November, 1944.
    ———————————————————————–
    The U.S. Congress Wallenberg, medal, of the 9th July, (1944-2014), seems more of a new reconciliation, as Obama, failed in the U.S/Swedish project of 2013, did not return « From Russia with (love?) », but no information, at all. The State department even claimed that , » Wallenberg, was (even he) a Holocaust victim », what stirred up his relatives, if possible more. A new cold war, « 2.0 », was the last thing, most of us, needed, very sad. But perhaps the Wallenberg relatives to some extent, are satiesfied with this new deal ?
    ———————————————————————-
    Perhaps its even from U.S., we can expect more facts, in the future, even if the Russians carry a great responsibility, to solve Wallenberg´s disappearance. But even Sweden, is sitting on a secret real « fortune », concerning still classified decisive archivals.

    But, as Wallenberg, accepted to represent in secret, a U.S. state authority (1944) (WRB) U.S., (with Swedish UD/official cooperation) they must bear the full responsibility, for the lack of the contemporary Westallied´s/Neutrals adequate, personal protection/ information concerning Raoul Wallenberg´s mission, much more than – the not correct informed Russians, had to clear him out. Without: any written warrant/ Swedish collega-ues, in a very determining, important battlezone, against Third Reich, not at all defe-ated in January 1945.
    ————————————————————————-
    FDR AND THE JEWS : (RICHARD BREITMAN) : (2013)
    ————————————————————————-
    Richard Breitman/ FDR (Roosevelt) and the Jews/Breitman/Lichtman (2013) : – – (But here some quotings from a professional historian, the latest (?) book about, the U.S. president, F.D. Roosevelt and the Jews, what preceded the founding of the World Refugee Board, January, 1944.)

     » – – – Wallenberg´s assignment to Budapest, posed risks both for the Swede and his American sponsors. His American mission conflicted with his official Swedish role, and more conservative Swedish instructions. How could he serve two masters ?

    He would likely have to deal with German officials in Budapest, in efforts to rescue Jews, but U.S. representatives had to refrain from any negotiations with the enemy. The War Refugee Board. also had to avoid criticism from the State department, and the War department, that it was running its own foreign policy. Wallenberg and board officials kept paper communication to a minimum.

    (*/ Breitman don´t suggest, nor explicit mentions any kind of known, cooperation between, WRB and OSS, what many other historians do today.)

    Internally, the WRB claimed Wallenberg as an ally to demonstrate progress against the Holocaust in Hungary. (Henry) Morgenthau (*U.S. Secretary of the Treasury) asked:  » – And this man, this Wallenberg, is able to get them (Jews) shelter in Hungary ? Pehle (WRB) responded,  » – To some extent. Wallenberg is there, solely because we put him there. He is really our representative. ». The board also had plausible deniability, in case Wallenberg went too far for American political sensibilities.  »

    Short after Wallenberg arrived in Budapest, Pehle sent, « a detailed program to Olsen (* =Iver), suggesting the names of persons in Hungary who might be helpful in arranging rescues and we (*=WRB) have indicated various escape routes, which might be available from Hungary. We have arranged for private funds to be sent to Olsen, to be used expressly for rescue operations from Hungary.  » – – – /Source:Breitman 2013.
    ——————————————————————–

  5. Servus. dit :

    ———————————————————————–
    (5.) THE ICRC (THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS) IN GENEVA : THE
    GERMAN RED CROSS (DRK)
    ———————————————————————–
    (1.) The German Red Cross, and  » Hitler´s Duke » , Duke Carl Eduard, never acted agai-nst the Nazi regime, to stop the persecution and murder, of Jews, (6 millions) or the as murderous, treatment of the millions, (3.5 millions victims) Soviet POWs.

    But first in April, 1943, with the German Katyn-disclosure, the Polish 20.000 POWs executed by NKVD, 1940, ICRC took action, when Hitler demanded an investigation by the (ICRC) International Red Cross, Geneva, with the purpose of splitting the Allies. (Even Sweden/SRK) sent pathologists/specialists to the investigation, as Hungary, and of course the Polish exile-government in London.)

    The same instrumental purpose, as the « Jews for sale-projects », 1944/45, for separate capitulation talks, but 1943, then frightening Europe, with Jews staging, as Red army`s shot-in-the-neck « politruk-commissars ». But the Soviet deception, the denialprocess of Stalin´s and the NKVD´s Katyn-executions, 1940, shares no doubt, some similarities, with Wallenberg´s disappearance, in the Soviet prisons.

    But then 1943, Katyn, was used by the Nazis, to drive a wedge between the Allies, in what many participated, then serious threatening the Grand Alliance´s war efforts, dur-ing the most decisive Summer of 1943, of the Kursk/Orel battle, what sealed the fate of Third Reich, in the world´s biggest tank-battle, soon after Stalingrad. (The Katyn unvei-lings, made even the Germans to exhume, all their own, execution sites in the East of Europe, about 800.000 corpses, by forced slavelabors, to destroy all evidences of war-crimes.)
    ————————————————————————
    500.000 GERMAN WOMEN TOOK PART IN THE NAZI KILLING FIELDS : IN THE EASTERN EUROPE TERRITORIES:  » HITLER`S FURIES « :
    ————————————————————————
    At least, about 500.000 German women, took part in the German occupation, of Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union, as nurses, (even in the Deutsche Rote Kreuz), guards, tea-chers, typists and even killers of Jews and prisoners. They contributed to the terror and genocidal war in the Easter territories. Only a very few, sadistic female Kz-SS/guards were put on trial and convicted.

    « – – -This fact has been suppressed and denied by the Western historians. Better talking of the Red army´s revenge, of 1944/45, the women only as victims, and not perpetra-tors, suited even a more modern feministic view « – – -/source: Wendy LOWER: (2013): Hitler´s furies: German woman in the Nazi killing fields.
    ————————————————————————–
    CHAIRMAN OF THE DEUTSCHE ROTE KREUZ : 1933-1945: CARL EDUARD VON SACHSEN -COBURG/GOTHA : THE GRANDFATHER OF THE PRESENT SWEDISH KING : CARL GUSTAF:

    (THE SWEDISH ROYALTIES, PRINCE CARL AND COUNT FOLKE BERNADOTTE, WERE CHAIR-MEN IN THE SWEDISH RED CROSS/SRK:)
    ———————————————————————–
    By that, how could this influence, the Swedish Red Cross, and its measures, during the Holocaust, even in Budapest 1944 ? « The Führer´s Duke », The Duke of Sachsen-Coburg was one of the most devoted Nazis, already from the 1920s. 1933, NSDAP-member, and militarized the Deutsche Rote Kreuz, 1936. Prince Gustav Adolf was married 1932 to the eldest daughter, of « Hitler´s Herzog, » the leader of the Deutsche Rote Kreuz. (DRK).

    Carl Eduard of Sachsen-Coburg´s, daughter, the Princess Sibylle, the present Swedish King´s Carl XVI Gustaf´s (b.46) mother. A photo shows the Duke taking part in the present Swedish King´s parents, Prince Gustav Adolf and Sibylle´s, breakfast, with the Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg, during the Olympic Games of 1936 in Berlin.

    Later a vice leader, was the SS/Reicharzt/Ernst Robert Grawitz, the latter active in KZ-medicine experiments with POWs and prisoners. (But even the present Swedish queen´s father, W.Sommerlath, NSDAP-AO, returned to Third Reich, 1938, from Brazil, and took part of the « Aryanization » of Jewish companies.)
    ————————————————————————–
    BERBER & NOACK: AA/PEACE MEDIATORS:
    ————————————————————————-
    I mentioned Fritz (Friedrich) BERBER in my comment *2014:2, spent July 1944, in Germ-any, returned to Geneva late in July, but wasn´t arrested, after 20th July, in spite of being denounced by Ribbentrop, as a British (SIS) Secret Service agent, (due to Berber´s memoirs.). Anyway, he was in place, at ICRC/Geneva, the whole period, Raoul Wallen-berg , stayed in Budapest. If so, able to contact, BERBER, via the ICRC`s: mr Schmied, Born, Burckhardt and Huber.

    (BERBER was as early as 1939, in separate peacetalks, with the German Ribbentrop-AA/agent, Ulrich NOACK, then living in Norway, having contacts with major Vidkun Qui-sling, Nasjonal Samling, December, 1939, suggesting Germany should, immediately break the German-Russian pact, and attack, as: –  » Heute habe Deutschland noch in Finland, das beste Sprungbrett nach Petersburg,(Leningrad) und könne so von zwei Seiten, gleichzeitig, den Marsch nach Moskau aufnehmen « , and beating at least Napo-leon Bonaparte, 1812,  » Major Quisling recommended.
    ———————————————————————-
    INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) ISSUED IDENTIFICATIONS FOR 10 TOP NAZI-WARCRIMINALS, AMONG : DR JOSEF MENGELE, ADOLF EICHMANN, KLAUS BARBIE: ENABLE THEM TO ESCAPE TO LATIN AMERICA, POST WAR 1945:
    ———————————————————————-
    The Chairman of the ICRC, Dr Max HUBER, owned industries in Germany, with slave-workers, and made millions in profits, and ICRC/Geneva managed to issue identity, cards, enabling the evil triad of :

    (1.) « Doctor Death » , Auschwitz, Josef MENGELE.

    (2.) SS/Adolf EICHMANN (!) , « The Holocaust in Hungary ».

    (3.) « The Hangman of Lyon », (France) SD/Klaus BARBIE,

    – to escape to Latin America. Many Red Cross officials was later revealed as German
    agents.
    ————————————————————————–
    More Hungarian pro-nazis, collaborators, big businessmen, than the Jews , must have been deadly frightened, before the arrival of the Red Army to Budapest , 1945. Probably they received, as much passports, they could swallow, from the Neutral´s reliefactivities, the Swedish legation, the Swedish SRK (Red Cross), the Swiss IRC, and by forgery. What Henry Thomsen (Hermann Grosheim Krisko) claimed 1945 to NKVD, confirmed by Lars Berg, 1956:
    ———————————————————————-
    Lars BERG, Swedish, UD/secretary, in Raoul Wallenberg´s Budapest team, the B-section, 1944, claimed in a letter to Rudolph Philipp, as late as 1956: –  » When complaining about his (Berg´s) employments, of H.THOMSEN and M.TOLSTOY, Lars Berg replied:  » – Raoul Wallenberg´s many employments of Nazis, Arrow Crossmen, and other, quite more « uglier » people, than Thomsen/Tolstoy, was a bigger problem, and more dama-ging, than advantageous for the Swedish interests, together with his huge production of passports « ./- – – due to Attila Lajos diss. : The Hero and the Victims. (2004)
    ————————————————————————-
    CONCLUSION:
    ————————————————————————-
    The Soviet Union´s accusations of the Swedish and of the Neutral´s legations in Buda-pest, seem in this light of the International Red Cross, ICRC, during the war and post- war, (+The Vatican´s/Ratline, & U.S./Operation Paperclip) not that absolute fabricated, unfounded, as even one Swedish female, liberal witness, Mia Leche-Löfgren, (later in the « Wallenberg-committée » 1946), claimed Raoul Wallenberg « didn´t dare return to Sweden after this doubtful, passportsbusiness in Budapest, when he even furnished Nazis, with them. » /Source : Swedish Paris-ambassador,mr Westman and his secretary Lennart Petri /Attila Lajos./2004/
    ————————————————————————-

  6. Servus. dit :

    ———————————————————————-
    (6.) HANS WEYERMANN : INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS/ICRC : GENEVA : ONE OF THOSE WHO SAW RAOUL WALLENBERG, HIS LAST DAYS IN BUDAPEST: (BUT NO ONE SAW WEYERMANN IN THE WALLENBERG-RESEARCH… 🙂
    ———————————————————————-
    « – – – Weyermann remained in Budapest after the Soviet forces had driven out the Germans and he was one of few eyewitnesses who saw Wallenberg in 1945, shortly before his disappearance. »- – – (But no one saw Weyermann in the Raoul Wallenberg research. . . .)

    The 29th of November 1944, Hans WEYERMANN, former employee, for CIBA /later CIBA-Geigy) in Budapest , applied to International Red Cross/ ICRC, to be ICRC-delegate hel-ping, Friedrich von BORN what ICRC approved, without asking Born. Weyermann, then went to Budapest, he had all necessary visas.

    He had ICRC instructions of 1st of December 1944, priority to examine the ICRC hosp-itals, and stop the deathmarches (60.000). He met Saly Mayer, The American JOINT in Geneva, the 4th of December, then arrived the 7th to Budapest.

    Weyermann suggested to Born to separate, the Buda and Pest-districts, Weyermann taking over Pest. Weyermann was popular in Hungary, a presscommuniqe even publ-ished , him as from ICRC, and BORN`S deputy, dealing with the ghettos. Weyermann complained over those hospitals, with ICRC sign, not worth of the name « Hospitals ».

    But nearby two Swedish SRC/SRK-hospitals, were well equipped and run, but if not up-grading, the cross-symbol was to be removed, from ICRC`s. They must not be used as clandestine arms stores. Too much buildings had protection, no army would respect that, due to Weyermann.

    The ICRC delegation had grown so huge, without knowledge of its head, and lacked overview or control. The Red army arrived the 24th of December, 1944. A meeting were held in the Pest Central office.—  » Pest would be cut off from the main office on Buda. Weyermann tok charge of the Pest office, 1st of January, 1945. Borns excessive organisation now began to have disastrous effects, when the institutions, demand ICRC to provide them with medical materiel. Born support this, and by that they neglected to store supplies. The newly set up Childrens home, was abandoned during the fighting, by the staff. Born didn´t have too much « credibility » in Geneva.

    BORN was declared in fact, « non grata », by the Russians, the 10th of February, 1945, and went back to Geneva arriving 1st of May. Weyermann went to Debrecen, the 13th of December (!) 1944, to organize the relief. The 13th of January (!) 1945, Weyermann had Moscow´s permission, to lead the ICRC, serving from 15 February -15 March. The 19th of march 1945 he went to Bucarest, with the consent of Moscow, to meet the ICRC del-egate, and then became successor to F. Born.
    ———————————————————————–
    HANS WEYERMANN : SOURCE /THE U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM`S ARCHIVE :
    ———————————————————————–
    Weyermann worked in close cooperation with the provisional Hungarian new govern-ment, helping Jews returning from Auschwitz, and camp prisoners, and freed POWS, curing malnutrition of children. ICRC had an independent radiostation, , broadcasted information on split of families, and missing relatives. Weyermann did a great deal, to transfer funds, from AJDC (American Joint) to Jewish beneficiaries. Stayed until april 1946.  » – – -.
    ————————————————————————–
    « – Pertains to the activities of Hans Weyermann (1912-85) as the delegate of the Inter-national Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1944 in Budapest. Includes material rel-ating to the disappearance of Raoul WALLENBERG. Hans Weyermann (1912 –1985) was a merchant and the ICRC delegate. Born in Zürich. Schooling in Lichtenstein. Pharmaceu-tical education in Chur. 1927-1932 business school in Neuenburg. Business manager at several Swiss-owned chemical firms in Budapest. 1939 Swiss mandatory military service as corporal (“Aktivdienst”). 1941 returned to Hungary. – – –

    « – – -After the German occupation of Budapest in March 1944, Weyermann returned to Switzerland. In 1944-1945 he served as a delegate of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Budapest. Weyermann intervened on behalf of the approximately 100,000 Jews in Budapest and prevented the deportation ordered by Adolf Eichmann of 20.000 children to the extermination camps. After the war,from 1945 to 1979 Weyer-mann again became the representative of chemical firms in Eastern Europe, including the Degussa concern. « – (Some complainments were expressed postwar by the American Joint, about his financial activities.)  » // U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum´s Archive)
    ————————————————————————
    RAOUL WALLENBERG´S LAST DAYS IN BUDAPEST: / SOURCE / THE WIKIPEDIA SITE:
    ————————————————————————
    —  » The 11th january 1945, Wallenberg arrived to the International Red Cross office, asking ICRC, to stay there, for some days. Next day, he went to the Swiss legation, and met the Palestine-office´s head, Miklos Krausz, who gave him some documents, and a big amount of money, 200.000 pengö. Wallenberg told Krausz, that he aimed of going to the town of Debrecen, and convince the Soviet Marshal, Malinowski, of, as fast as possible, capture and save the Jewish ghettos. One day later, the 13th January, the Red army, captured the quarter of the city (Pest), and a major, and a group of soldiers, arr-ived to the ICRC-office.- – – /WP.
    ———————————————————————–
    CONCLUSIONS:
    ———————————————————————–
    Weyermann saw Wallenberg, in January 1945. But no one saw Hans Weyermann, one of the main ICRC-officials, during the last phases of the Battle of Budapest, and after, hel-ping the Budapest´s inhabitants, up to April 1946. And probably by that, arouse sus-picions of ? … you know what.

    How could Hans Weyermann got access to the Soviet´s confidence ? But not the other Swiss/ICRC and legationpersonnel, and Raoul Wallenberg ?
    ————————————————————————–

  7. Servus. dit :

    ————————————————————————–
    (7.) ABWEHR ABT. : FREMDE HEERE OST : WILL REINHARD GEHLEN`S INTELLIGENCE
    OPERATIONS BE THE ANSWER: ?
    ————————————————————————–
    The employment of Hermann GROSHEIM-KRISKO, 1944, was maybe a Swedish appease-ment, to Germany, in order to give Germany access to information from the Soviet POWs. Through the hardships in the POW-camps, some Soviet POWs accepted recrui-tment in the German RSHA and in Wehrmacht, for special secret, deception operations, in Red army uniforms/ materiel on the Eastern front, and in the Vlassov (ROA) anti-Sov-iet,army.

    Perhaps the Swedish military attache´the notorius Lt. Col.,Harry Wester, was not well suited, (must return to Sweden,October 16), and the Russian-speaking, borned in Ros-tov, (b.07) (German citizen 1922), GROSHEIM-KRISKO, with the assumed name:
     » Henry Thomsen », of « Norwegian » origin, took charge of the interrogations, not only of POWs, but perhaps all those helpseeking, and refugees, turning to the Swedish legation, during the Fall of 1944.

    If so, Wallenberg could have been accused of collaboration, not only the with the RSHA-chain, WRB/OSS and the Swedish C-bureau, but even with the (rest of the) Reinhard Gehlen´s Abwehr/FHO, together with the Himmler´s « Benjamin », SS/SD/Schellenberg, looking like a : Fremde Heere Ost-operation.

    His later approach to the Red army lines, January 1945, could have been interpreted as even that, a Fremde Heere Ost-operation, and he became from that, treated in the cat-egory: « German agent « ,together with, German  » diplomats « , Richter, Roedel, and others.

    The Red army had real troubles with the German deception/stay behind operations, as soon they entered former Soviet territories, and later the Reich proper, during 1944/45, through operations from the rear, by small German units of fanatics.
    ————————————————————————–
    THE SECRETARY CLUB:
    ————————————————————————–
    From Jan Bergman´s book : Sekreterarklubben : C-byråns kvinnliga agenter under 2:a världskriget = The Secretary club : The C-bureau´s female agents during WW2.

    Jan Bergman (b.56) Swedish tv-producer, historian, claims in his new book, ,2014/ Norstedts, (where even his own mother, of Finnish origin,served), what was known, before, that Raoul Wallenberg var godson of Helmuth Ternbergs (2nd in command,the C-bureau) brother,Navy captain EGON TERNBERG (1890-1953). He served from 1940 as Swedish Navy-attaché in Finland/Helsinki, what always has intelligence connections.

    (Source :Susan Berger 2008; / Raoul Wallenberg’s baptismal register. Present, the main Wallenberg families …..and Jacob Wallenberg. Interestingly, the list also includes « Löjtn. E. Ternberg », who is almost certainly identical with Egon Otto Ternberg, brother of Helmut Ternberg who served as head of Swedish Intelligence’s C-byrå during World War II. Helmut Ternberg oversaw Swedish foreign military intelligence operations while Raoul was in Hungary in 1944. He also maintained close ties to both Marcus and Jacob Wall-enberg, and served as one of Jacob’s contact men in his attempt to establish clandestine contacts with Soviet representatives.- – -)
    ————————————————————————–
    Bergman claims that Meropa AB, was one of the many cover companies, the Wallenberg group, launched during the war : (1.) Meropa was one of those, in part a C-bureau enterprise, what Raoul Wallenberg knew. He accepted even other missions from the C-bureau, during the war. Probably, neither K. Lauer, or Raoul Wallenberg could have met, Iver Olsen, (arrived December 1943) – only by chance at the Strandvägen no.7.

    Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, employed at the Swedish legation, the Fall of 1944, is nam-ed  » ENDERLEIN », by Bergman, and he interrogated the Soviet POWs, what numbers pro-bably increased during the Red army´s all-out offensive against Budapest, during Raoul Wallenberg´s mission.

    Bergman claims that  » Enderlein » (under the name Henry Tomsen) served in the Reinhard Gehlen´s organisation,  » Fremde Heere Ost », (FHO) a special Abwehr intelligence group, 1942-1945, and  » Enderlein » then used FHO´s questionnaire. – – –  » Hardly standard diplomatic practice. « – – -/ claims our source CraigMcKay.

    Probably it was not primarily about (only) to protect a German agent, but to give the Abwehr/FHO and SD, first hand access to Soviet POWs and other important sources in Hungary.

    Bergman : –  » Enderlein » could have been Raoul Wallenberg´s liaison officer, to RSHA/SS and FHO, Abwehr, collaborated . Wallenberg even ordered his photographer ,T. Veres to take pictures of Soviet artillerypositions, near Budapest, what must have been well sui-ted in the: Fremde Heere Ost´s intelligence activities.

    If he then 1945, visited (or was locked up/arrested), in Pest quarters, the Soviet posit-ions without warrants, and he hadn´t any written warrant from Ivan Danielsson, as the Kutozov-Tolstoy couple, Michail and Myriam, both carried. Add then Wallenberg´s connections with the RSHA/SS/ Becher-Fegelein-Himmler chain. Both the C-bureau and U.S/ OSS viewed Hungary as important, and the many Swedish enterprises there were an intelligence advantage. Wallenberg´s position in Pest, was perhaps most justified by the Jewish ghettos there.
    ————————————————————————–
    I don´t want to interprete Craig McKay´s choice of contributions, but he focussing from most the « pro-Allied » view:

    (1.) Ivan Danielsson as pro-Axis´s . (Spain/Cairo) 1937-1942.

    (2.) The Michail Tolstoy´s legitimate written warrant was issued by Ivan Danielsson, as
    even his wife´s Myriam , Swedish legation warrants. Raoul Wallenberg lacked this
    basic diplomatic insurances, but doubtful if such warrant could have saved him.

    (3.) The Grosheim-Krisko case, (Enderlein an RSHA/SD/ FHO-agent, « in place » ? SS/
    Walter Schellenberg cooperated with: Abwehr.Abt. Fremde Heere Ost /Gehlen,
    when needed. FHO could give SS/SD more exact informations about the Red army´s
    order of battle, deployment, and name of the formations.
    ————————————————————————
    Gellert Kovacs mentions some notifications from Raoul Wallenberg´s diary: November, (1.) the « EXZ », interpreted as code word for some rightist/national resistance. (2.) the word  » Neszmély », is (prob.) a village close East, (Danube) to the Hungarian camp/ fortress (Komaróm) for the Soviet POWs. But this region, close to the Danube, was even in the German´s  » deathmarches », directions, Northwest, from Budapest, and could have been some secret supplypoint managed by Wallenberg. / G. Kovacs.
    ————————————————————————–
    The whole Jews-for-sale project, was not possible without collaboration with Nazi Ger-many. That´s the case with the:

    (1.) Danish rescue of 7.000 Jews, October 1943. Hitler´s plenipotentiary Werner Best,
    leaked the time of the deportation, and agreed with Adolf Eichmann, « only » taking
    Danish captured Jews, to Kz. Theresienstadt, (=462 persons, 52 perish) instead of
    gassing in Auschwitz, as part of the deal. Many Danish fishermen made a fortune
    by taking the Jewish refugees to Sweden, and the German navy didn´t act. The
    same probably with….

    (2.) ….the Swedish vicar, Erik Perwe 1942-1944, (The Swedish Berlin-church/ parish)
    and…(perhaps issuing passports for three (3) Gestapo-men against five(5) Jewish
    refugees.)

    (3.) The Wallenberg/WRB – mission. 1944-1945
    ————————————————————————–
    Jan Bergman have done his research, from appearantly « inside » , interviews, (for many years, but few written sources) and his claims, are surpricingly straightforward, but seems credible, but the reason, why Bergman, calls Hermann « Grosheim -Krisko »,  » ENDERLEIN  » is unknown.

    Bergman, writing in a « faction » style, about the historical Stockholm, during the 2nd Worldwar, about Ternberg, and the female agents the C-bureau both abused, and sacrified. As when Ivan Danielsson:  » complaining about the 10-20 kg:s of Jewish gold, Wallenberg carried in his car´s gastank « . (Here the C-bureaus alleged « confiscation » of the Sonderführer Edmund Sala´s Abwehr/Norway war chest, filled with cash, 1945 comes to mind.)

    (Bergman claims even that Sverker Åström/UD was acquainted with Helmut Ternberg.)
    ————————————————————————–
    If Wallenberg had connections with, the:
    (1.) Swedish C-bureau:
    (2.) U.S. WRB/OSS:
    (3.) British SIS/SOE (Lolle Smit)
    (4.) Third Reich´s RSHA/Abwehr /FHO, the
    (5.) Hungarian resistance-cells, of different political categories…

    … this could explain his fate. The neutral Sweden first completely ignored and then gave the RSHA/FHO full access to the Soviet POWs, that´s what Helena Isotalo claims 1991 /DN. Maybe then, hard to understand the full political military meaning, conseq-uences, of.

    Reinhard Gehlen´s Abt. Fremde Heere Ost / FHO / Foreign Armies Ost, and Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, could be the answer, what Craig McKay in a way perhaps, suggests here.
    ————————————————————————–
    THE BRITISH PEACE-PARTY OF 1939-1941:
    ————————————————————————–
    Grosheim-Krisko´s position, in the Deutsche Wirtsschaftsdienst, could perhaps be com-pared to the British´s : Ministry of Economic Warfare (MEW), where the Price-Water-house accountant, Dickerson, was employed before joining the Red Cross and the Swedish Budapest legation, 1944.

    Alfred Smith characterize MEW, in his book (2001) about the Rudolf Hess case, (Hitler´s deputy) when Hess flew to Britain, to negotiate a peace agreement with the « British Peace party », May 10, 1941, with help (!) from circles in the British MI6, before the German Barbar-ossa attack on the Soviet Union in June, 22. The « real war » was the coming one against the  » Bolshevik Russia. » The ongoing war, threatening the British elite´s position,as wars often, of course is followed by revolutions, and social upheavel, as both 1918, and 1945 showed. Even 1989. (and perhaps 2014).

    « – – – Major Desmond Morton, was Churchill´s confident since long before the war. When Churchill took over in 1940, he appointed Morton of what was then called the Industrial Intelligence Committee or Agency (IIA), later the Ministry of Economic Warfare. This was nothing more in their early days than covers for Morton´s activities, as Chur-chill´s personal intelligence agent. Churchill referred to the MEW, as the « Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare. One of the chief purposes of these organisations was the mon-itoring, of MI6 agents, who might be overzealous in the search for peace. Churchill always had a profound distrust of what he describe as the  » collective wisdom of the services intelligence organisations. « – – – A.S. 2001./
    ————————————————————————–
     » COMMON SENSE AND NOT BRAVADO ! »
    ————————————————————————–
    This  » Peace-party », what Churchill supressed, had members as the Foreign minister Lord Halifax, and Rab Butler, Secretary of State, those, the Swedish minister Björn Prytz, (1937-1945) (former man. dir. of the Wallenberg´s SKF-industries, 1919-1930), met by  » chance », in the St. James Park/London and then delivered back to Sweden, the famous telegram, (June 17th):  » Common sense, (=Halifax/Butler) and not bravado,(=Churchill) « , should guide Britain´s foreign policy  » – meaning peace with Germany, 1940/41.

    This message the Swedish government used to accept the Wehrmacht´s Swedish appeasing transitation of 2 million soldiers, 1940-1943, from the Norwegian/Finnish fronts. Even the Baron Knut Bonde, diplomat in Berne (Kelly), friend of Eric von Rosen, brother-in-law with Göring, estate in Scotland, father of Raoul´s girlfriend, Angelica Bonde, was active in peace mediation. As Carl Douglas, (Ibo´s brother, Norway 1940) was later stationed in Madrid/UD. Nothing wrong in general peace brooking business, but….

    Raoul Wallenberg must have been in close social contact with this peace mediators, and peace talks, up to his ears. People, Churchill and Eden most despised, as Birger Dahl-erús. Even Raoul´s contact in Stockholm the British minister, Victor Mallet, was viewed as a genuine member of the « Peace Party ». (As the diplomats Kelly and Livingstone). Why not mentioned Raoul Nordling in Paris – Swedish consul, since 1926, and man. dir. for the SKF plants in Ivry, Paris, who Raoul must have met, during his business visit in France, 1942.

    Then, June 19, the British Navy seized the three Swedish destroyers, on their voyage from Italy, coincidental ?
    ————————————————————————-
    ANNE CLARISSA EDEN (NEE: ANNE SPENCER CHURCHILL) : IN BUDAPEST: 1944/45:
    ————————————————————————-
    By that, now, just one problem left: Why was Churchill´s niece, Anne Spencer Churchill (b.20.) spending some time in Budapest, the Fall of 1944 ? Did she met Raoul Wallen-berg ? Perhaps Raoul missed this young beauty, (24yrs) occupied instead with ms Berber Smit, whose (Dutchman) father Lolle, (Philips) served in the British secret service (SOE), in Hungary/Romania, due to Craig McKay.

    Anne Churchill, (still standing 2014), was decoding ciphers in the Communications Dep-artment of the Foreign Office, from 1940, where her future husband was the Secretary of State from 1940–1945. Anne married the British Foreign minister, Anthony Eden, 1955, (-1977) and became Lady Avon. (Her father, was John Strange Spencer Churchill (b.80) (Lady Avon´s own memoir: From Chuchill to Eden ).

    This question, because of a footnote in K. Ungvary´s work: Battle for Budapest, gives: – – -The poodle  » Roby » disappeared , during the battles, and then Anne (Churchill´s niece) must soon visit the aide of the Soviet City Commander of Budapest :

    Lt Col. Makarov: – « What is the little dog´s favourite dish ? Blood-sausage, Hot dogs, or Fried Liver ?  » – quoting the Brave Soldier Svejk. = Was isst das Hündchen denn am lieb-sten ?  » « – Hünchenfleisch » (Chicken ) » Anne Churchill, answered proud. The dog was later recovered, although, not through the searching of the Soviet City commander. « – – – / (Source : K. Ungvary/ & Memoirs, Lt.General Ivan Terentevich Zamertsev)

    Perhaps  » Roby » had higher odds of survival in war-ravaged Budapest, 1944/45, than Raoul.
    ————————————————————————-
    (Gehlen later joined the U.S./ CIA and became the head of a military intelligence service in Westgermany, post war. Hellmuth Ternberg, later joined Reinhard Gehlen´s intellig-ence network, post war.( Wechselmann. 1995)
    ———————————————————————–
    CONCLUSIONS:
    ———————————————————————–
    Probably, Raoul Wallenberg had connections with the Swedish C-bureau, and Ternberg, due to (the « insider in a way »), Jan Bergman´s book.

    The obviously cover employment of Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, cannot but arise sus-picions, of some kind of collaboration with Third Reich interests, perhaps serving for Reinhard Gehlen´s : Abwehr Abt. Fremde Heere Ost. Abwehr had since 1930s been in close contact with the Swedish military secret service. The C-bureau and U.S/OSS cooperated, during the last time of the war.
    ———————————————————————–

  8. Servus. dit :

    ———————————————————————-
    (8). FATAL « INTELLIGENCE CLOUDS » ?
    ———————————————————————-
    I can imagine some possible « intelligence service clouds », hanging over Raoul Wallen-berg, based on printed facts. In Sweden his possible connections with the General staff´s military intelligence service, the C-bureau. At present reclaimed by the historian (and part insider), Jan Bergman in his book: The secretary club. (2014) : The Swedish C-bureau during World War II. (Swedish)

    If Raoul was implicated in the Swedish military intelligence service, the step to even join the U.S./ War Refugee Board, 1944, was not a distant option, but this secret missions didn´t give the Swedish government, a plausible deniability space, early 1945. Add then presumed contacts with the Hungarian resistance, the German Abwehr.

    Probably Sweden used her diplomatic immunity, to support U.S. interests in Hungary, in order to overtake the Nazi-Germany´s Fremde Heere Ost´s/FHO, , Gehlen´s agent-network. Jan Bergman claims, that both the Swedish legation´s clerk, Margareta BAUER, and Per ANGER were in the service of the Swedish C-bureau. (A.Lajos claims Anger was in some network, » as he know that two British SOE-agents been arrested ». ) (Bauer was recruited by Gunnar Jarring/C-bureau, later Swedish minister in Moscow./ Jan Bergman.)
    ———————————————————————–
    THE TERNBERGS :
    ———————————————————————-
    Once upon a time, there was a Swedish navy engineer, named Robert Ternberg, (b.1853) He got two sons, Egon Otto, (b.1890-d.1953) and Helmuth (b.1893-d.1971). Both join the Swedish military, Egon, the Navy, and Helmuth the Army, perhaps because their father, the Navy engineer died rather young, 1903.
    ———————————————————————-
    EGON OTTO TERNBERG :
    ———————————————————————-
    Egon Ternberg, joined the Navy, and was 1910, Sweden´s youngest officer, later 2nd lieutenant, in service together with his colleague (!) Raoul Oscar WALLENBERG, at the Stockholm Navy station, Raoul´s father, who died 1912. Then Egon became Raoul´s godfather, that year, and may had some understanding of losing one parent, too early. Helmuth Ternberg was later 2nd in command of the C-bureau, from 1939. Probably Egon, recruited Raoul Wallenberg, due to Jan Bergman.
    ———————————————————————–
    From Maj Wechselmann´s book: (1995): De bruna förbindelserna (The Brown connec-tions) : (The C-buraeu).  » – When (Carl) Petersén arrived to Stockholm in the beginning of 1940, he started to assemble a small circle of Pro-German and Finnish activists. Ano-ther category, was trustworthy friends and acquaintances, lawyers, artists, ad-designers, much out from Petersen´s and Ternberg´s private life, and a third, of people never
    associated with intelligence activities, perhaps just most innocent and ignorant people.  »

    * No doubt, Raoul Wallenberg could fullfill most of this qualities.
    ————————————————————————
    Egon later became Swedish navy (captain) attaché in Finland/Helsingfors, 1940-42. Some sources claim that Egon, catched up the telegram from the Swedish (air)cruiser Gotland, in May 1941, reporting the German battleship, Bismarck, sailed North, bound for Norway. This information reached, through secret contacts, the British Navy-attaché Henry Denham, Stockholm, and is said to have been of vital importance, during the Bri-tish Fleet´s hunt and sinking of the Bismarck, that same month.

    Probably Egon Ternberg, then in the Navy staff, had contacts with his brother Helmuth Ternberg, and the C-bureau. If this communication, was intentional, to support the British war efforts, is unknown, the relations Sweden-Britain, wasn´t that good, then, especially between the Navies. (Perhaps Helmuth informed the Germans about the PQ17 convoy July 1942/ due to M.Wechselmann.) (Bergman claims even that late Olof Palme (b.27) met Helmuth Ternberg, during the traditional teapartys Ternbergs mother, invited Palme´s mother, address Riddargatan no 51, both emigrants from the Baltic States.)

    Helmuth Ternberg, joined 1918, the Swedish Brigade in the Finnish Civil war, Egon took part of the Finnish Winterwar,1939,both were decorated, with the Finnish Cross of Free-dom. We know that Raoul Wallenberg, served in the HomeGuard (Paramil.) with other leading Finnish activists, as Major Allan Winge, and Raoul´s captain (company) in the National Swedish army, Lage Wernstedt, served, on the Finnish (Axis) East front (Carelia /Svir) 1942.

    Bergman claims, the Swedish secret service during the Finnish Stella Polaris -operation, 1944, was active to taking over even the German Abwehr´s FHO-networks in Finland. Iver Olsen´s Baltic operations, 1944, perhaps the same business, involved Raoul Wall-enberg in Hungary.
    ———————————————————————–
    FOUR FINNISH ACTIVISTS:
    ———————————————————————–
    Four leading Finnish activists, « anti-Soviet/communist die-hards », officers, two in secret service, may have came close to Raoul´s daily activities and this could give a pattern, a hint of both Raoul´s political opinions, and networks. But strange that Raoul never applied for service in the Swedish volunteer Corps /SFK 1939/40, or in the Finnish army 1941-44, (as about 10.000 Swedes) during op. Barbarossa, but limited himself to the more public role in HomeGuard (paramil.), and of course in the Swedish army.(500 days.)

    (Helmuth) « captain Ternberg » was the name in the OSS-cable, November 7, 1944, (Bari) what even mentioned Soos, Wallenberg, Anger . Bergman claims, that Ternberg´s spe-cial operation interest, was Hungary, viewed as the weakest point in the Third Reich´s front, and the Axis´s Anti-Comintern Pact.

    Both Ternberg and Wallenberg visited Hungary, before 1944. Ternberg alleged, search Europe, for Raoul Wallenberg, post 1945. Probably the Soviet´s secret service, was well informed about the Swedish C-bureau´s activities/J. Bergman.
    ———————————————————————-
    VADIM BIRSTEIN`S STUDY : THE SMERSH (2012):
    ———————————————————————-
    Richard Kauder´s alias Klatt (or Karmany), German Abwehr agentnetwork, moved dur-ing the Fall 1943 from Vienna to Budapest. Could be a part of Gehlen´s Fremde Heere Ost/FHO. Klatt was a Austrian Jew, recruited by Abwehr 1940, and was forced to collect information, about the Red Army, to save his relatives. His crew, seemed to be Jewish, and contacts as Anton Turkul, a former Russian « White » czarist officer.

    Still today there is many questions, both from the West´s and former Soviet (NKVD) intelligence, of how effective the Klatt bureau, indeed was, and suspicions that many reports were faked, and in fact managed by the Soviet´s intelligence/Avraham Ziv-Tal. (Perhaps as Edgar Klaus alleged activity in Sweden, another Jewish agent in the German Abwehr service.)

    But interesting here, is that, declassified CIC/CIA-documents, (www) from the inter-rogation of Richard Kauder, after his arrest, 1945, by the U.S., counterintelligence, dealing with his agents/sources and his alleged contacts (!) with German agents, well-known, people appearing in the Wallenberg literature, as Edward ENGESTRÖM and Karl/Gerhardt SCHMIDT alias GFRORNER.
    ————————————————————————
    EDWARD ENGESTRÖM: (1899-1961):
    ————————————————————————
     » Engeström » is mentioned by Craig McKay in: Excerpts…..,/ and « Gfrorner » in Attila Lajos : The hero and… /dissertion, 2004, and Richard Kauder: alias  » Klatt », in Vadim Birstein´s : SMERSH : Stalin´s secret weapon.
    ————————————————————————-
    The U.S./CIC, protocols claims that: — –  » The Swede, ENGESTRÖM, (1899-1961) was an German * Abwehr agent with the purpose of collecting foreign currents for the Abwehr personnel, and owned an estate in Hungary.  » – – – (But of course all of this kind of intelligence files, may be false, and not the plain truth.)
    ————————————————————————–
    But this is in line with C.McKay´s informations, although, explicitly not the Abwehr mission, but appearantly the key motive. Engeström had some access to the Swedish legation, unknown how, and was accused of spying for the Arrow Cross, and could be interested in Wallenbergs disappearance. But although C. McKay´s comprehensive in-formation in : Excerpts…(2011), there seems the top of the ice-berg, concerning Enge-ströms personal background, antecedentia…

    Engeström travelled often to Switzerland,(1941) and claiming he sold Swiss textile fact-ories to Hungarians, to release Swiss capital, otherwise locked in Hungary. This business was approved, encouraged by the Swiss authorities./C. McKay.

    Engeström could be described, as the « Skånes Raoul Wallenberg », borned in one of the most wealthy families, the sugarbarons (compared with the sawmills barons in the North), but without a certain position, in the third generation. (married 1921.) By that he had probably knowledge of textile industry, (as even the Swiss, VonRuf, Carl Lutz´s deputy, was man. director for a Hungarian textile manufacture.)
    ———————————————————————-
    But Engeströms´s Swedish relatives, were wellknown businessmen in Malmö. His grand-father Edward Engeström,(borned Dane) (1821-1899), was a wholedealer in Malmö. Successful industrialist, in sugarmills, textile, matches, shipping, Malmö city council (20 yrs.) A big shot, with big estates. (Malmö/Fridhemsborg built 1916,/40-rooms palace with good view of the (Öre/Sound.)

    His son, Engeström´s father: MAX Emil Leopold Engeström (1867-1930) succeeded, him, 1899, and was Consul for Belgium. His wife, (Engeström´s mother), Margareta (nee Eckardt/born in Germany) (1875-1950),was not unexpected, member of the pro German Swedish-German society (Riksföreningen f. 1937).

    A daughter, Ingeborg (b.03) (Engeström´s sister) was married with the German Navy officer Count, Felix VON LUCKNER, 1924, (f. 1881-1966/Malmö)…. Her mother (& Edward´s) Margarete managed partly Felix von Luckner´s personal administration of his voyages, books, and was supported from the German NSDAP.
    ————————————————————————
    COUNT FELIX VON LUCKNER: « DER SEETEUFEL: »
    ————————————————————————
     » Wikipedia/ Felix von Luckner / Der Seeteufel (the Sea-Devil), and his crew that of: Die Piraten des Kaisers (the Emperor’s Pirates), for his exploits in command of the sailing commerce raider SMS Seeadler (Sea Eagle) between 1916 and 1917. It was Luckner’s habit of successfully waging war without casualties which made him a hero and a legend on both sides.(14 or 25 enemy ships.) Luckner was married twice, firstly to Petra Schultz from Hamburg, with whom he had a daughter, Inge-Maria, born in 1913. They were div-orced in 1914, and on 24 May 1924 he married secondly, INGEBORG Engeström (b.03) in Malmö. »

    « Felix von Luckner was a frequent visitor to the (Reinhard) Heydrich´s house in Halle, where his stories of the adventures of Seeadler inspired a young Reinhard Heydrich to join the interwar Reichsmarine. » (But Luckner seemed later to have had a perhaps que-stioned position in the Third Reich. The Luckner couple emigrated to Sweden 1946-1952, but Luckner died in Malmö, 1966. (He received the German Bundesrepublic´s Cross, 1953.)

    Anyway a pressphoto (www) allegedly from (February) 1941 shows Luckner together with the Nazi topbrass : Ribbentrop/Hitler/Hess/Ley /Raeder/Goebbels/Keitel/ Anton-escu (Romania) when Antonescu joined Romania to the Tripartite-pact. (Probably the photo is then from November 1940.)

    Luckner´s visited New Zeeland/Australia , in May 1938, just some weeks after the Aus-trian « Anschluss », and were met with public protests, as a former Kaiser-officer, and 1938, a Third Reich supporter.  » As the publicity machine churned, a jovial and charis-matic von Luckner proclaimed his desire for peace and an alliance between Britain and Germany », and that Britain should be allowed to keep her British Empire. This opinion is said to be one of the Third Reich´s pillars, in her British policy, during the war, (1939-41), – instead,  » join the Barbarossa against the Soviet Union. »
    ———————————————————————–
    RUDOLF HESS:
    ———————————————————————–
    The photo mentioned above, shows Rudolf Hess, then still the Fuehrer´s deputy, 2nd, and one of Hitler´s messengers, who the 10th of May 1941 took off for Scotland, and RAF/Douglas Hamilton/Dungavle the last call before code-word: « Dortmund » 03.15, the 22nd of June.

    Probably in concert with Hitler, perhaps invited or cheated (as the Venloe incident 1939) but even with enough German « deniability », space. (The Venlo incident, indeed, Novem-ber 1939, mastered by Walter Schellenberg/SD, was nothing, else but a proof, of a ser-ious British test of the possibilities for the « British peaceparty » of a British-German pea-ce, but what damaged much of the British SIS European activities.
    ————————————————————————–
    EDWARD ENGESTRÖM : ABWEHR-AGENT ? :
    ————————————————————————–
    The Russians arrested and interrogated in Budapest, Engeström in February 1945, inter-ested in the Jewish JOINT´s  » fund », and the number of passport issued, by Wallenberg, in fact a month after Wallenberg´s arrest, the January,17. Engeström later escaped.
     » The questioning (of him) by the Swiss secret service 1941, and 1946, by the Swedish police:  » seemed to lack focus and no attempt was made to dig deeper. » / C. McKay.
    (But perhaps the  » Klatt » interrogations, and  » Abwehr », is the answer, to some extent…)

    The Swedish secret service file for Edward Engeström even, (strange…why? ) contains, the telephone-tapping of calls from the British legation in Stockholm, but without date. « ANGELICA  » (ought to be Ms BONDE, father the Baron Knut Bonde, Göring´s peacemedi-ator 1940/41),and Raoul´s girlfriend, saying:  » ANNE ask Raoul to visit the legation « .

    « ANNE » ought to be the diplomat wife/legation clerk.: H. W. A. WARING, and Anne Waring, was active in the British SOE´s coding/decoding service, with her husband, Bill, in the British blockade busters, from Sweden. (See my comment 2013.) (But the C-bur-eau, was active in espionage, concerning the British/Norwegian ships, in Gothenburg, on behalf of the Abwehr/M. Wechselmann).

    This calls are undated, but could be from Raoul´s alleged visit in Sweden, the Fall of 1944, or not, we don´t know. There are two heavy testimonies about Raoul´s alleged plans to visit to Sweden, during his Budapest-mission, confirmed, supported not the least from (1.) Marcus Wallenberg, 1981, and even by Raoul´s brother,(2.) Guy von Dardel./Göran Engblom. (2008)
    ————————————————————————-
    (Engeström Edward Otto Max: jur.dr. Slottsstaden.d. 1961-07-01. (Estate of inventory 1962. /City of Malmö)
    ————————————————————————-
    DR SCHMIDT, KARL/GERHARDT ALIAS GFRORNER: (ABWEHR)
    ————————————————————————
    « Gfrorner » was Leader of Meldekopf III F Budapest of Ast Vienna from 1941 to 1944. Arrested, May 1944 in Budapest by the Gestapo on account of swindling large sums of money from Hungarian Jews under the pretense of helping them to emigrate – together with Josef DURST and Rudolf SCHOLZ. Was rumoured that c. 50 million pengos, part of which in foreign currency, were found on SCHMIDT -and DURST. Reported to have had a part in the dealings of JOINT’ by Bandi GROSS, Josef DURST and Erich WENDER, Abwehr-agents. (Kaudern does not know what happened to SCHMIDT.) (DURST was known in Budapest as the largest buyer of foreign currency also for shifting of large sums in horse racing.

    Gfrorner, had some contacts with the Jewish JOINT in Budapest, probably in cooperation with U.S. agents, and the Joel BRAND case. DURST was implicated, with Gfrorner, in deliverance of cash, to Turkey. The German police SD/SS attaché, Gustav Richter in Bukarest, intercepted mail for JOINT. (Gfrorner, knew Wallenberg from Budapest, but not Henry Thomsen/Grosheim-Krisko.) (A.Lajos)
    ————————————————————————
    RICHARD KAUDERN`S ALIAS « KLATT`S » ABWEHRSTATION:
    ————————————————————————
    The Klatt station,(Abwehr) moved, (20, most Jewish telegrafists/radio-operators/ cod-ing/decoding clerks. October 1943, to : central Budapest, (Pannonia utca 13), Novem-ber 1 (Bajza utca), and later to (Herman Otto utca),, (Buda), (Szeher utca), / Rakosker-estur, (Batori utca.)

    But November 3, 1944 they moved to the little town CSORNA. But one W/T -station (wireless telegraphy) remained in Budapest. From Csorna – to Austria in February 1945. Csorna is situated in the North west, only 40 km:s from Hegeshalyom, just close East, of the Soviet POWs camp, Veszkény. Not far from Komarom at the Danube.

    Hegeshalyom, was the borderstation, where Wallenberg, Anger, and Nandor Batizfalvy (!) arrived, November 23/24 trying to rescue « protected » Jews, from the Budapest, » death-marches ». Batizfalvy the Hungarian policeman, adviced the Swedish legation, to employ, the German, Herrman Grosheim-Krisko, from August 1944, as Russian translator.

    Perhaps far-fetched, but unthought, Klatt´s Abwehr Csorna-station, « CSOK », was situ-ated not far from, the sensitive area, Wallenberg visited, late November, 1944. But this  » Klatt »-story,was although wort while, giving some information of the  » suspect », Enge-ström, in McKay´s « Excerpts. »
    ————————————————————————–
    CONCLUSIONS:
    ————————————————————————–
    (1.) Wallenberg, was early (1940) probably a C/bureau-agent, recruited by the Ternberg brothers. (2.) The MEROPA company a C-bureau/cover, for, among, their Hungarian intelligence business, (3.) financed by the Wallenbergsphere/Enskilda banken, their address, together with the U.S. legation, from 1941, where even the OSS kept an office. But Meropa even earned their own money/ Jan Bergman 2014. (But their archive is obl-iterated.)

    Iver Olsen´s arrival, in December, 1943, as refugee attaché (WRB) and economic « Safe-haven/sanctions agent, OSS-financier of secret operations/Baltic States /Sepal, and by chance meeting Meropa´s Koloman Lauer in the elevator, asking for a WRB-candidate (WRB, prohibited to negotiate = U.S. Enemy/act) suggesting by chance, Raoul Wallen-berg, lacking real credibility, more of a fairy tale. This thin elevator-story is « officially » approved – but not the his alleged secret trip to Sweden, 1944.

    If the Swedish government had knowledge about Raoul´s presumed C-bureau mission, and commissioned him with Swedish diplomatic immunity, covering even his foreign U.S/ WRB-mission, they made a tragical mistake. Diplomat or agent, perhaps the choice, « to be or not to be », in Budapest, 1944/45, (instead perhaps, C-agent/ad-hoc-diplo-mat/ U.S. WRB-agent, businessman, peacemediator with the Horthy-nationalists.)
    ————————————————————————–
    Both Sweden and U.S. became interlocked and lacked all kind of deniability space, only there, when the same time the : (1.) Finnish C/bureau´s Stella Polaris-operation, (2.) Iver Olsen´s C-bureau/Baltic operations the Fall of 1944, (3.) SS/Ludwig Lienhard´s Estonia-Swedes, 1944, and finishing off with the (4.) C-bureau/Lillehammer coup, in May 1945, Edmund Sala´s Abwehr unit.
    ————————————————————————
    All these operations must have dealed even, with picking up, and taking over Finnish/ German/ Baltic agentnetworks, from Abwehr FHO/ Fremde Heere Ost, Reinhard Gehlen – and even deploy new agents, against Russia. Both the C-bureau, WRB and OSS ceased their activities, 1945/46, what probably added damage to Wallenberg´s fate.
    ————————————————————————
    The new socialdemocrat government from the Summer 1945, must implement a new foreign policy with the Soviet Union, and even (in secret) with U.S., deemed much more important than the possible revealing of Wallenberg´s agent networks, and secret/ con-tacts, activities in Hungary, 1943-1945.

    All the other implicated were career diplomats, even the Swiss citizens. Raoul Wallen-berg´s name and position, must have give him, immense credibility/immunity, in con-tacts with the Hungarian/German officials, and if (?) he recruited/ new or present agent-networks.

    Only , the Neutral, Sweden, was able to maintain, in official contact with the « enemy », Germany, as the Swedish legation in Budapest, officially accepted as a cover for the U.S. humanitarian WRB-mission.Only Sweden´s C-bureau could take care of the FHO/ Frem-de Heere Ost´s/incl. the Hungarian´s agentnets, and thereby hiding U.S./OSS own con-tacts with Abwehr/FHO/Reinhard Gehlen, and from the allied Soviet Union´s knowledge before the German surrender, in May 1945.
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  9. Servus. dit :

    ———————————————————————–
    (9.) THE BO ANDRÈNS : GUESTS @ WALLENBERG`S COCKTAILPARTY DECEMBER 2, « , 1943:
    ———————————————————————–
    During the first month of Swedish´s official/UD activity, 1945, January-February to get in contact with the persopnnel of her Budapest-legation, there is another interesting information in the documents :  » – February 8, (S.Söderblom/Moscow-minister) I , has communicated a direct message from the man.dir. Bo ANDRÈN, through Wallenberg, (for NKID),concerning Andren´s family, (then) staying in Hungary. »

    But how was the circumstances, about Wallenberg´s friend (or companion), Bo Andrén ? Some information can be extracted from the www and other open sources.
    ————————————————————————
    But first: Susann Berger/ Stuck… – – – « On the other hand, Swedish officials made sure that both Henry Caird North of the British Legation as well as the Swedish businessman
    * Bo Andrén were informed immediately of Wallenberg‘s disappearance. (January, 18, 1945.)

    Both North and *Andrén have personal dossiers in the archives at the Swedish Security Police. Andrén was a Swedish businessman [* Isolas Gruvindustri] who had both busin-ess interests and family members in Eastern Europe and who was well acquainted with Raoul Wallenberg and the Wallenberg Family.

    In the Swedish Police dossier he is described as having close contact with the British Legation, Stockholm. After the war, Andrén maintained close ties to various Eastern European representatives in Stockholm. /- – –  » Susann Berger  » /
    ————————————————————————-
    HJALMAR ANDRÈN & SÖNER : ISOLA GRUVINDUSTRI:
    ————————————————————————-
    This, Bo Andrén´s own enterprise: Isola´s gruvindustri (mining) (1947, 70 employees, produc-tion 400.000:- SEK) dealing with minerals. (Bo Andrén owned a small company/ isolation goods) already in 1935.)

    During the war he was active in  » international business », unknown what, and imported from Hungary, hardwood, besides his Swedish mining company. (Postwar he success-fully developed, companies dealing with building materiels, plastics, etc., still running.)

    Their offices were situated @ Kungsgatan no. 65, (1941) and later @ Sveavägen no. 52 in Stockholm. (Later 1946, postwar their office was @ the Kaptensgatan no 6, former(!) address, of the German legation´s propagandacenter, Deutsche Informationsstelle, with library and pressection, (just behind the Strandvägen no 7A. )

    The Isola gruvindustri, was dealing with the minerals : glimmer (mica) quartz, fältspat (felspar) , and mikanit. (tradename). Probably a business opportunity, came with the war, 1939, in glimmer/mica trade. Andrén´s company drew some mining of glimmer in the North of Sweden, (Frostviken) around 1941-45.
    ———————————————————————-
    MICA: STRATEGIC MINERAL:
    ———————————————————————-
    The mineral glimmer (mica) , is protective against high temperatures, was then used in many military applications, as isolation in spark plugs, radio/valves/tubes, condens-ators, isolation, resistance. (The Robert Bosch´s enterprise in Germany, invented 1902 and produced well-known, for every car driver, spark plugs. (But mica could not stand the chemical attack of the lead compounds,(petrol) and ceramics took its place, in the supercharged aircraft engines, from 1940s.)

    A two mm glimmer(mica) piece could isolate, 20.000 voltage. « Strategic  » mica », aircraft and tankmagnetos, military radios, radar, sound detection equipment / U.S. Bureau of Mines/1942. Germany was not so well endowed with local or colonial resources during WW2. U.S. Munitions Board classified industrial grade mica as strategic mineral.

    (The Wallenberg´s cloaking business with Bosch during the war, comes to mind… » sparking » some thoughts, as perhaps possible contacts with the Tudor AB, (batteries).

    And if Wallenberg had access to knowledge of the Wallenbergs cloaking business (Bosch) , during the war, influenced the brothers interest in having him released ? A security risk ? One of the lawyers implicated in the Bosch operation, was Herbert Lick-fett, German -Swede,(Kungsgatan 32) and representant of the I.G. Farben, Sweden.
    *The Swedish Currency office, archive, shows that Herbert Lickfett AB, during September 1942 to September 1945, was permitted eight times, to re-import gold from Germany, in total 31,5 kilograms.

    ————————————————————————-
    MICA-MINING IN SWEDEN:
    ————————————————————————–
    Source: local employee S. Knutsson/ memoirs /ASEA /www : — – » 1942, the Swedish industrial commission, took contact with the Swedish company, the ASEA, main prod-ucer of electrical goods (as generators) and claimed: –  » The need of the glimmer mineral (mica) could not be covered by import, that´s why Swedish deposits must be explored « . There were at least one mining company, in Sweden ready to produce glim-mer, for ASEA, and that was Hjalmar Andrén & Söner AB, then active with a deposit in the Bohuslän and the Orust regions. But this production was then under a deal, licensed all to be delivered to the AEG (Allgemeine Elektrische Gesellsch. ), in Germany.) – – –

    But then ASEA protested to the Industrial commission, and the exportlicense was refu-sed for Hjalmar Andrén & Söner. After some hard negotiations, they now must deliver most of the glimmer, to ASEA, and the rest for AEG. This decision wasn´t appreciated by the Hjalmar Andrén & Söner. »- – –
    ————————————————————————-
    FROSTVIKEN: WARTRADE MICA PRIZE INCREASED 25 TIMES : FROM 1939-1943:
    ————————————————————————-
    1941-42, the Swedish Air Force/Administration, took the leadership of the glimmer mining operations, in Frostviken. This because of the Swedish purchase of the Italian aircraft Caproni 210. The Italians demanded 3 tons glimmer, (mica) to compensate the delivery of 32.000 spark plugs in the deal. Hjalmar Andrén & Söner was contracted, but the delivery must now be 6 tons, because of the low content. But the price for glimmer increased 25 times, from 1939 up to 1943.

    One local historian (B. Björk) asking: The costs for the state for this mining ? How much was used in Sweden ? How much was exported ? The Germans delivered compressor oil, from their occupied Norway, and how come that German industrial officials visited the mines, (Görtelstjaak) during the 2nd World war ? The Isola gruvindustri was active in the Avardo and the Tangen mountains, in the same area. But 1945, the works ended. But perhaps these companies, just worked for the Swedish market, and Swedish inter-ests, here. There are different sources about the mica-production, some claims 700 tons, and the Airforce had som 2 tonnes in storage, before.
    ————————————————————————
    WEDDING IN BUDAPEST : 1942:
    ————————————————————————
    Bo Andrén (b.07) married his wife Erzsebet (nee) von Vangel, the 10th of February 1942, in Budapest.  » The family  » S. Söderblom/UD search for in Hungary, through Wallen-berg, February 8, 1945.
    ————————————————————————
    CONCLUSIONS: A GLIMMER OF…WHAT ?
    ————————————————————————
    1942, February, 10, Bo Andrén was just married, in Budapest, and had presumably through his Hungarian wife some knowledge, contacts about Hungary, suitable for Wallenberg, Ullein-Reviczkys, December 1943. How come Wallenberg and Andrén was aquainted – in business matters or earlie, with the Wallenberg main family ?

    Strategic materiels, war trade and speculation revenues, cloaking business, assisting flight capital were in fact a Wallenbergsphere special branch. But if Andrén´s exported mica-mineral, for Germany/Hungary , (or Britain) or just satisfied the domestic Swedish industrial needs, is unknown. (Neither Isola Gruv., or Hj. Andrén & Sons, seem to be on any  » proclaimed list » /black list.)
    ———————————————————————–
    Susanne Berger/SvD:2007  » — : Swedish enterprises, did business with Nazi Germany and Hungary, 1944, what caused the Soviets to launch serious protests. But after the German occupation of Hungary, March 1944, all trade was shut down. But in August , an emmissary, Ferenc von Pirkner, the SKF:s head in Budapest, then offer to Sweden in cooperation with German plenipotientary, Edmund Veesenmayer, a kind of « Jews-for-sale » deal.

    SKF hq in Gothenburg then decided to sell their storages of ball bearings, in Europe to Germany / Schweinfurt, even from Budapest. (The headquarters of the company opera-ted in Üllői Street no 55, from its inception) The same month, August, 1944 even, the German, Hermann Grosheim-Krisko was employed of the Swedish legation, in Budapest.

    (The Swedish Trading Company, (Grundböck) in part, a Wallenbergenterprise had stored 17.000 barrels with Finnish nickel, (Kolosjoki mining) a strategic mineral in tanks, mun-ition etc., in Budapest.  » )- – – SB.
    ————————————————————————–
    But back to mica. Raoul Wallenberg´s main rescue partners in Budapest, Jewish /Dutch, were everyone active in industrial electronic plants, dealing with products, obviously in need of mica minerals:

    (1.) the Orion Radio company, (affiliation of Tungsram)
    (2.) The Tungsram bulbs, and even
    (3.) The Philips / Lole Smit. This industries needed mica in radio valves/tubes,
    and other probably military applications.

    The Svenska Orion AB, Stockholm, founded 1931, became nationalized 1948, in Swe-den after the war, by the Flight capital controll office/Flyktkapitalbyrån. (Per Anger knew Vilmos Forgacs/Orion AB, since 1931, in Stockholm).

    Did Wallenberg had some contacts with Andrén´s wife/family when in Budapest, 1944
    /45 ? Was Söderblom´s telegram, from Andrén, for NKID/Moscow 1945, as late as Feb-ruary 8, compromising things ? But anyway, Erzsebet/Elisabeth Andrén returned to Sweden, living in Stockholm. But the official investigation never mentions explicit, Andrén´s Hungarian contacts, and Hj. Andren´s mica-trade (export?) (perhaps ?) with Germany/AEG.
    ————————————————————————
    PER ANGER:
    ————————————————————————
    Per Anger´s (b.13), father: David, (b.86) had two brothers, Filip (b.98) (in the TCO /whitecollar-union) and Folke.(b.06.) Filip was married with a Baroness, Birgit Mörner, (b.99), (m.26).

    Her sister, Dagmar Mörner (b.01) (m.31.) (father b.53, Hampus Mörner af Morlanda nobility, no 62) was married with the shipowner Sven Salén, (b.90.). He was Raoul Wallenberg´s, man. dir., in the Banana-company, and with K. Lauer in the Meropa AB.

    So, Per Anger could have som good contacts with, Sven Salén from early 1930s, and later in Budapest, as commercial attaché , 1942 in some Danube shipping enterprise. Per Anger was called up for military service, 1939, but soon in January, 1940, was dispatched to Berlin as diplomat.

    His Uncle, Folke Anger,(b.06) married Sigrun Henke (b.02 , (daughter of H.E. Henke, man,dir., in the Osram-Elektra-verken, (bulbs) (later in 1945/ a Flight Capital Control Office -Safehaven object) and they later moved to Katrineholm, candidate for the Right party (Höger), and they were probably members of the Swedish-German society, during the 1930s.

    (During the war Folke Anger was commissioned reserve captain/infantry, (41), and in the same military list as the diplomat/UD, Gunnar Lorentzon, (b.21) later in the Wallen-bergresearch, 1950s.)

    Per Anger married 1943, Elena Wikström, (b.20) Stockholm, and had three children. Elena was daughter of Cavalry captain Nils Wikström (b.86) (K1/1930-) and Corinna Wikström, (nee Autenrieth.) As Jerker Henke (.b.02) 1939, (Cav. capt. K1) son of Edward Henke (b.74),(The Stockholm´s Southern Homeguard 1943) and 1947 man. dir. in Osram /Elektraverken, with wellknown professor Edy Velander.
    ————————————————————————-
    So Per Anger´s wife´s father, (N.Wikström) officer in the same(page) corps, as his uncle´s Folke´s wife´s brother, (J.Henke) the K1., and another uncle, Filip, married with a sister, (Mörner) of Sven Salen´s wife.
    ————————————————————————-
    Nils Wikström lived in the same house/entrance the Strandvägen 7 C, as the German military attache´s office, the same yard as the U.S. legation and Salen´s/Lauer´s Meropa AB, 7A. He owned two companies, address the Fredsgatan no 2., close to UD, Ratio AB and Nils Wikström kommanditbolag (lim. own.ship) with unknown business.
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  10. Servus. dit :

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    (10.) MORE ABOUT : DR EDWARD ENGESTRÖM: AND THE BIEDERMANN / BOLZA FAMILIES:
    ———————————————————————-
    Craig McKay, gives Dr Edward Engeström, perhaps a main role, in the Wallenberg-case,
    in his  » Excerpts…2011″. (See my comment, above, no.8: Fatal intelligence…) Here some completing informations, from my own research.)
    ————————————————————————
    The Engeström´s impressing familygrave in Malmö can quite sensational, be visited on: YouTube/by a Dave Gibson 090723/ Don´t ask me why, no reason is given. Here rests « Engeström´s » parents: Max Engeström, Belgium Consul, (d.1930) ,mother, Margareta (d.1950) and Edward Engeström himself, (1899-1961). And Count Istvan Bolza.

    And Ilona Engeström (b.89), what must be Edvard Engeström´s wife. d. 1978. (d.in Sou-th Africa, Somerset West), she was borned Ilona Biedermann von Turony. And Count Istvan Bolza, (1921-1978), (d.in South Africa, Somerset West) (the same place/year 1978) was probably married to Edward´s and Ilona´s attractive daughter, Astrid Bolza-de Kezdy/ Engeström, (b.1923-)

    Astrid probably remarried after 1978, with Béla de Kézdy Vásárhelyi, 1906-2000 (d. Gordon´s bay South Africa, East Cape Town.) (She is even honorary member of the Felix von Luckner society, 2006, and Edward´s sister Ingeborg Engeström, was Graf Luckner´s wife.)
    ———————————————————————–
    If Engeström married 1921, with Ilona von Biedermann, they had this daughter , Astrid, 1923. And in Mozsgó/source McKay, (south of the lake Balaton) there is a huge estate/ castle ,  » The Biedermann-kastelý « , where they probably, if so,lived, 1920s-1945. (The castle was constructed 1886, by the Jewish Budapest -architects, Lechner and Partos, a part of the old successful Jewish influence in Hungary.

    Some facts from Craig McKay´s : Excerpts-2011:/ gives that Engeström claimed he was a weapondealer for the Swedish ordnance Bofors AB. And there were many license-built Bofors products, « flak-guns,40/80 mm:s in Hungary 1930/40s, (MAVAG/The Hungarian Royal railway´s Enterprise),mounted on the Swedish Landsverk AB armoured vehicles. And the Bofors AB, was a company within the Wallenbergsphere.

    Another curious fact is that in the Swedish official investigation, of perhaps looted Jew-ish gold in Sweden, the SOU 1999:20, there is a name list of « orphaned bank accounts », for what no one claiming access: One account is named:  » Ilona Engeström (Mrs) Hun-gary / the Enskilda banken (SEB) (=Wallenberg´s ). Perhaps (must be) Edward´s wife.
    —————————————————————–
    EDWARD ENGESTRÖM (b.99) IN SWITZERLAND : (DUE TO CRAIG MCKAY`S RESEARCH /2011)
    —————————————————————–
    Craig McKay gives some archival facts from Edward Engeström´s businesstrips to Swi-tzerland, during the war: – – –  » Engeström had made several trips to Switzerland during the war and had been the object of discrete surveillance by the Swiss. On Thursday, 17 April , 1941 Engeström had arrived in Zurich from Lausanne and booked himself in at luxuary Hotel Baur au Lac.

    He ordering the Metropol, the services of a secretary, visited Bank Winterstein & Co, next Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft (SBG) (Banhofstrasse), then brief visit to the German Consulate. After lunch a new visit to SBG which lasted an hour and a half. But the Swiss Police intelligence service had kept a close eye on Engeström, and he was involved in large currency transactions which the Swiss banks themselves had an interest.

    Engeström was buying large amounts of: pounds/dollars/gold bars. The trade in gold bars was interesting a month before, gold had been brought in from the Balkans and now was returning there. The Swiss police decided it was time to question Engeström personally, necessary to have this information in connection with his future journeys to Switzerland on business.- – –

    The account which Engeström now gave the Swiss police differed markedly from that he gave the Swedish counterparts (Säpo 1946). Engeström did not fail to mention his estate near the Hungarian-Yugoslav border, (*Moszgó), he represented the Bofors AB company with flat in Bucharest. Before the war, he had occasionally acted as a courier for both the Swedish /Swiss Legation in Bucharest and had often also in particular to Copenhagen. (The Bofors AB ordnance, a Wallenbergsphere enterprise.) – – –

    Engeström grabbed a case and showed the police a collection of pounds/dollars/ gold bars to the tune of 300 000:- Swiss Francs, « bribe money that he needed in the arms trade » . Without, impossible to do business in Romania. Engeström, himself, was enga-ged in that he sold Swiss-owned textile factories in Hungary to Hungarians , thus rel-easing Swiss capital which was otherwise locked in Hungary. – – –

    All this involved complex currency transactions. Engeström’s account of the Dreieck-geschäfte was confirmed in a Swiss Police Intelligence report of July 2, 1941 which simultaneously endorsed the value of Engeström’s manipulations for Switzerland. « Clearly Engeström had friends in high places. »- – – ends McKay.

     » – – -However, in the event, it did not spare him (EE) later substantial fines and costs after the war for a breach of wartime Swiss trade regulations pertaining to the sale of gold. « – – -(C. McKay.)
    ———————————————————————–
    THE SWISS GOLDTRADE : THE GERMAN « TURNTABLE  » FOR LOOTED GOLD IN EUROPE:
    ———————————————————————–
    But I must add some facts, here, about the « small Neutrals » Swiss/Swedish wartrade with looted gold by the Germans,published, in a special edition of the Dagens Nyheter, 1997, what perhaps can shed some light of this alleged transactions. These DN-articles and SVT-radioprogrammes paved the way for the Swedish official public investigation, (SOU) of looted gold, published 1999:

    First,  » Portugal, had a huge trading with Germany, mercury , wolfram, and mica(glim-mer), minerals, what Germany had enormous needs of. « / DN 970122) .(* The Saléns Pacific trade Co, what Raoul Wallenberg headed 1943, traded with Portugal, as Meropa with food). But the mineral mica,glimmer, (in spark plugs) appears curious enough in this DN-article. 1943, the Allies, warned the Neutrals, trading with looted gold, and after that the gold was delivered via Switzerland.

    – – -Portugal received 44 tons, due to the Allies, but repaid 4 tons. Of 34 raw materiels, Germany depended on import of 23. The Gold became payment when the clearingbal-ance showed negative. Even for to have access to convertible currencys, gold must be sold, by Germany.Switzerland and Sweden bought more gold than needed for the clear-ingbalance.
    ————————————————————————
    THE BOSCH-BUSINESS: QUOTATIONS FROM : AALDERS/BERGER 1997:
    ————————————————————————
    – – – » The German Reichsbank gave the Spring of 1943, Gold worth 5,7 millions (SEK) (today x20) to the Robert Bosch AG, to be forwarded to the Wallenberg´s Enskilda bank, but Jakob Wallenberg was suspicious of it was looted gold, and suggest instead valuable documents, bonds. This was done, the gold was sold to the Swiss National Bank, and instead, two Zürich banks accessed Swiss bonds, and then placing most of them in a Swiss safedeposit, with cover as a ordinary private customer, but the key was even in the Bosch´s hands, and the bonds, as before the gold, belong in fact to the Wallen-bergs.

    The deal stipulated that Bosch could buy back their shares, within two years after the war, not to be confiscated, as war reparations. And with many other Wallenberg, Bosch-deals (1940) to protect German property if, U.S. should go to war, as other German companies, : Siemens, I.G. Farben, Telefunken. But if this from a moral point, was not justified, the legal situation, bona fide, was in Wallenberg´s favour./DN/ Aalders/Berger 1997.- – –

    Germany, could not pay her import of war materiel, and raw wares, with valid currency. But through the Swiss National bank, gold could be changed against Swiss francs.
    ———————————————————————-
    (The Nazi Reichsbank´s /head Emil PUHL convicted in Nuremberg 5yrs, was visited 1943 in Berlin, by Ivar Rooth, Riksbanken, and Rooth took later good care of Puhl´s relatives during his prisontime, as W.Schellenberg/F.Kersten and even AA/W. Dankwort 1947, October to live in Sweden, postwar managed (as usual) by Count Folke Bernadotte.)
    ———————————————————————–
    The Swiss National bank bought, gold from the Riksbank (Sweden) for 74 millions in Swf (value 1943), andsold to Spain for 185 millions, and to Portugal for 450 millions (Swf) (Goldprice/kg 1943 =5.000:- SEK). Sweden didn´t care much of the dubious goldtrade, and the goverment (PA-H), even ordered the Riksbank (Ivar Rooth) not to investigate the German payments in goldbars. Something of the same attitude, as Switzerland.  »

    ( In fact, the big early Swedish national researchproject (SUAV/Sverige under andra världskriget/Sweden during WW2) never analyzed, this receiving of stolen goods, or the treatment of the persecuted Jews.  » /DN.1997
    ——————————————————————
    QUESTIONS :
    —————————————————————–
    Yes, probably Engeström had well positioned friends, what C. McKay observs, but whom were they ? His former « sugarbaron » wealthy familycontacts in Malmö ? The alleged with the Swedish AB Bofors (a Wallenberg-company) ? German contacts from his sister Ingeborg´s husband, Graf Felix Luckner´s good contacts in the Third Reich real topbrass ? Perhaps his alleged contacts with the Swedish/Swiss Foreign department as their courier, from Romania ? What happened with the estate in Moszgó ? How could he escape 1945, from the NKVD-custody ?
    ———————————————————————–
    COUNT ISTVAN BETHLEN: (1874-1946)
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    A book: Countess Ilona Bolza: (ed.) Count István Bethlen. A Former Prime Minister in Hiding (1944); Count István Bethlen: Hungarian Politics in World War Two. A Treatise or Indictment; Gróf Bolza Ilona: A bujdosó Bethlen István (1944); Gróf Bethlen István: Studia Hungarica series /Munich.(1985)

    Ilona Bolza (1910-1996) had probably some kinship (cousin ?), with Istvan Bolza (1921-1978): Her father was : Rudolf, Count Bolza (1878-1955)

    Ilona writes that: Count Istvan Bethlen, (1874-1946), was hiding on the estate of the Bolza family, from July- to October 1944, with Istvan Bolza (b.21)(Honved-officer) was borned in Tiszakurt, and son of Peter Bolza.) Countess Ilona had good relations with Horthy, as go-between, 1944, Horthy.
    ————————————————————————–
    – – – www/ Among the eye-witnesses to the preparations and final events was the (Bishop Apor) bishop’s niece, Countess Ilona Bolza, who recalled: ‘In December 1944, the Germ-ans recaptured from the Russians the Budapest military hospital (Pest) where I worked as a Red Cross nurse. The patients were evacuated to the West. I didn’t want to leave the country, and therefore, despite the complications of travelling in those days, I went to Gyõr and straight to the episcopal residence. – – -/source Ilona Bolza.
    ————————————————————————-
    Susanne Berger/SvD:2007 » — : Swedish enterprises, did business with Nazi Germany and Hungary, 1944, what caused the Soviets to launch serious protests. But after the German occupation of Hungary, March 1944, all trade was shut down. But in August , an emmissary, Ferenc von Pirkner, the SKF:s head in Budapest, then offer to Sweden in cooperation with German plenipotientary, Edmund Veesenmayer, a kind of « Jews-for-sale » deal, even in the board, Standard Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft AG. later part of the radio companies , C. Lorenz AG and Mix & Genest, producing electronics for the Wehr-macht, Focke Wulf, etc., during the war.
    ———————————————————————
    CONCLUSIONS:
    ———————————————————————
    Interesting here: (not only the three generation of Engeström family, some local historian ought to write down in Malmö, Skåne, the « Sugarbarons ») (there is even one Hungarian « Sugarking », Hatvany/artcollector/tion) mentioned in the Wallenbergcase)

    A female relative (cousin?) to : Count Istvan Bolza, (1921-1978) he, who´s buried in Malmö, is (probably) : Countess Ilona von Bolza (1910-1996), she stayed in Budapest, during 1944/-45 and hid on the Bolza´s estate in Herencsény, « the Bolza-kuria », (today marked with a memory board) (50 km:s northeast of Budapest incl. references to Count Antal von Bolza hussarofficer,) hiding the former premierminister, Count Istvan Bethlen, from July to October 1944.

    Bethlen then made a walk-over (December 7) to the Soviets hq, and later taken to Mos-cow, where he died,1946, (73yrs), acting, ending, most in the same way as Wallenberg, did, the following year. Bethlen´s remains was later repatriated from Russia, to Hun-gary, but in Raoul´s case his,only most personal belongings, as diary, driving license.

    During Bethlen´s hiding, Ilona von Bolza, claims served as a go-between, to Miklos Horthy, and Count Istvan Bethlen, old friends, since 1920s, Bela Kun-« Sovietrepublic », , and Vilmos Böhm, and the Hungarian Trianon upheavels. But Bethlen could even meet Miklos Horthy, the « regentregime », Bethlen himself in fact installed, during the 1920s, and he met Horthy frequent, 1944, going by car to Budapest, due to his biography.

    Bethlén in fact, aspired on a position, as premierminister, after the Horthy peace sound-erings with Moscow, but the coup´de etat´October 16, 1944, was then launched, and became a horrible game-changer, when the Hungarian Nazis came to power….
    ————————————————————————-
    (Thanks to the YouTube/2009/Mr Dave Gibson, visiting the S:t Pauli, cemetaries, of unknown reasons, the Engeström´s and his close relatives could be named. Probably they all lived and died abroad, and were then buried in Sweden, Malmö.)
    ————————————————————————-
    Ilona even served in the Budapest Military Hospital, as a Red Cross nurse, up to Decem-ber 1944, when the Germans decided to move their wounded. Ilona von Bolza, then went to Györ (close to Csorna), taking refuge as niece (!) to Bishop Apor.
    ————————————————————————-
    Perhaps Raoul Wallenberg was in contact with Istvan Bethlen and others, in separate peace sounderings with Britain./ Source due to Susann Berger.
    ————————————————————————-
    But why did dr. Edvard Engeström visited the Swedish legation, in Budapest, later accused of espionage,(even named in the F. Dardel´s diary) for the Hungarian Arrow Cross, damaging even for Raoul Wallenberg ?

    What was his cover or just valid mission then ? And why was the Edvard Engeström case, not thorougly investigated, of the public commission (SOU) and put, into the Swedish/ German/Hungarian contexts ? By that I´m repeating McKay´s concluding « Excerpts… question.

    I named the orphaned bank account, (1945) belonging to :  » Ilona Engeström (Mrs) Hungary / the Enskilda banken (SEB) (=Wallenberg´s) named in the SOU 1999:20 ?
    ————————————————————————-
    (This information ought be read together with C. McKay´s : Excerpt…2011 (* Edvard Otto M:son Engeström). All facts, from open printed correct sources,(+www, YouTube) or are conclusions from the main Raoul Wallenberg official investigation.)
    ————————————————————————

  11. Servus. dit :

    ————————————————————————–
    (11.) COUNT ISTVÁN BETHLEN : THE MAIN HUNGARIAN POLITICIAN : ARCHITECT OF THE HORTHY-REGIME:
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    Count István Bethlen was one of the most significant political figures in 20th Century ´s Hungary. One of the last conservative,nationalists. Elected to parliament, 1901, making politics, until the end of WW2. A medium,landowner from Transylvania, 1918-20, major organizer of the counterrevolutionary forces/white terror (against Bela Kun/Red regime) (*reminding of Janos Kadar 1956-1989 the other way around.) 1921-1931, primeminis-ter as such the architect of the s.c. Horthy regime, and later anti-nazi/Pro-Western orientation, prepared to cooperate with the Soviets, 1944.) ( Source : The biography of Istvan Bethlen / Ignác Romsics/1995)
    ———————————————————————-
    HORTHY`S ADVISOR 1943-1944:
    ———————————————————————-
    Said that: In August 1943, Horthy created an informal body, of advisors, by the German Abwehr/Arrow Cross Party named the  » Burg-clique », included Bethlen. They met Aug-ust 17, at the Horthy residence, Gödöllö.They decided a separate peace was possible if: (1.) Allies guaranteed that Hungary would not be occupied by the Soviets.(2.) The Allies committ themselves regarding the future borders. (3.) Recognize the present regime, what then would include members of the Socialdemocrats in the cabinet.

    This Gödöllö resolutions, were proofs of grave delusions, entertained by Bethlen, and the conservative leadership, and prescribing conditions, including only one or two Soc-ialdemocrats, didn´t impress the Allies, they were unacceptable, or impossible. (This peacefeeler, what was happened, in Turkey in September 1943, when Raoul Wallenberg is said to have been around, as he visited Hungary then. (As in the spring 1943.)

    (*Ullein-Reviszcky´s left Budapest in September,1943, became new Hungarian minister in Sweden, and continued these  » secret activities », with the Allies/Sweden, what ended in the German invasion, in March 1944, and the following disaster for the Hungarian Jews, and Hungary, compared to Romania´s resolute overthrow of the German influ-ence, and military positions, in August,1944. Hungary fought with Hitler to April 1945.)

    The Horthy-group prepared, to welcome Anglo-American forces, and turn against the Germans. But the Allieds offensive in Italy slowed down, and halted, the Red army
    instead approaching, and Bethlen advised M. Kallay, the primeministern (big landowner) in the fall, to contact Moscow, and got the answer: – » Istvan, I will not become a Mosc-ovite leader.  »

    Bethlen didn´t gave in his proposal, but in reality, he hoped for a Anglo-American off-ensive, through Italy, to reach the Balkan Penninsula, as envisaged by Churchill, during the Moscow conference of October 13-19, 1943, what Bethlen received copies of intim-ated that Stalin didn´t object to Churchill´s ideas, but the Teheran-summit a month later, Roosevelt/Stalin against Winston, decided the: D-Day, in June 1944. Just head on.
    ———————————————————————
    ROMANIA SURRENDERS : AUGUST 1944:
    ———————————————————————
    Bethlen tried to come to terms with, Romania, (Hungary had taking over the huge Transylvania district through Hitler 1940) Mihail Antonescu, with the same « loser »-problem, as Hungary. But Bethlen could never travelled to Bucharest, to meet Maniu, without German knowledge, and sent his former Foreign minister Miklos Banffy, June 1943. But neither Hungary or Romania were capable of a peaceful agreement, without the intervention from the great powers. By that they couldn´t shortening the war, avoid seeing their land a theater of war operations.

    Bethlen fears that when the Russians reached the Bessarabian border,  » the Romanian will switchs sides, and attack us. » This was a justified fear, as Romanian officers, toppled the Antonscue regim in late August 1944, and join the Red army, helping in capturing Buda (*Pest),(January 1945) and the recapturing of the Vienna Award of 40´ Transyl-vania. But Hungary then became a Soviet sphere of interest, as Romania.
    ———————————————————————-
    BETHLEN`S STRATEGIC MISTAKE :
    ———————————————————————-
    1944, Bethlen believed (as many others) that the Allies would unavoidably turn against each other, 2-3 years from 1945, and that Hungary will end up in the British sphere. His strategic mistake, stemmed from the fact, he didn´t recognize the collapse of the British empire, and a new bipolar global system.But in his tactics, then began to attribute much greater importance to the Social Democracy/Labor, as a way of building bridges tow-ards the Soviets, and the same time establishing contact with Moscow.
    ———————————————————————-
    BETHLEN : FEBRUARY 1944:  » – HUNGARIA HAS LOST THE WAR !:  »
    ———————————————————————-
    In late February, 1944, Bethlen in the Defence committee, the Upper House, condemning the entry in the war against the Soviet Union, proposed the curtailing of the responsible general staff, and Hungarian warcrimes, in Novi Sad,1941. Bethlen: – Hungary has lost the war, and must make separate peace with the Russians, as the Soviet-Finnish armis-tice talks in Stockholm, (* then in the Wallenberg´s Saltsjöbaden hotel, between Paasik-ivi and Kollontay.)

    Horthy and Kallay continued to listen to Bethlen´s advice. Horthy wrote to Hitler, urging that Hungarian troops be allowed to withdraw from the Eastfront, and ordered the all-out mobilization of the army, the Minister of the Interior, to facilitate the operations of the local branches of the Social Democrats. Kallay informed the Hungarian diplomats, accredited to neutral countries, (among Ullein-Reviczkys) to the affect that Russian troops will reach the area first, and the earlier assumption that Hungary´s future was in the hands of Anglo-American forces, no longer applied in the short run.
    ———————————————————————-
    THE GERMAN INVASION: MARCH 19, 1944:
    ———————————————————————-
    The German leaders had all information of the planned breakaway, since they September 1943 prepared for an invasion, ordered by Hitler, the February 28, to be executed the March 19, 1944.

    Just before, Istvan Bethlen was at Inke, (50km:s southwest of Lake Balaton/West near Nagykanidza) and he was phoned by Horthy, March 16, informed him of Hitler´s invit-ation to Schloss Klessheim. Bethlen had advised Horthy, that if –  » receiving such an in-vitation, he must refuse, accepts under no conditions. There followed a click, and Horthy put down the receiver, without a goodbye. Bethlen then went to Budapest, March 17 meeting the opposition, but no armed opposition was possible,  » if not the U.S. drop paratrooopers on Hungarian territory, what Bethlen hoped. (What became the OSS/Spar-row mission ?)
    —- ——————————————————————
    BETHLEN GOES INTO HIDING : ESCAPING GESTAPO : MARCH 1944:
    ———————————————————————-
    Gestapo then begin rounding up opposition leaders, as primeminister M. Kallay, and Istvan Bethlen, but he managed to get away, disguised himself as  » Sandor Teleki », major in the guards, as horse trader for the army.

    From March 20, 1944 to early May, he spent in Gyöngyösherman in Transdanubia, (100 km to the north, from Inke, above the Balaton-West. tip,) then for almost a month he was at: Szentes, in southern Hungary, (150 km:s southeast of Budapest) with the family of Count Antal Bolza. (Probably Brother of Countess Ilona Bolza, earlier mentioned in comment no. 10, as dr Geza Bolza)

    From June 6, Bethlen was in Transylvania, first as colonel in the hussars, at the hq of Army commander Lajos Dalnoki, Veress in Kolozsvar, then at Léga in Kolozs county, probably places all behind the Tizsa river. From late July to mid-October he was at Herencsény in northern Hungary, in the castle/kuria of the brother/sister, Antal & Ilona de Bolza family (100 km:s northeast of Budapest.)

    Gestapo searched Bethlen, but couldn´t find him, because of his frequent displace-ments.The Hungarian paper and Völkischer Beobachter, accused him of the treason of the « Burg-clic. » But they never find him, only his hosts , and Karoly Lazar, Guards com-mander and aide-de-camp Gyoula Tost. He became sick and tired, but was encouraged of the D-Day, June 6.
    ———————————————————————–
    BETHLEN´S PM FOR HORTHY: JUNE 1944:
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    He prepared a PM for Horthy, later in June, to organize a new cabinet, not the Sztojay » Qusling », stop persecution of Jews, be independent, but waiting for the Allies offensive, from West, but until then, collaborate with the German army against the Bolshevik Rus-sian attack, what we today know, Horthy took to his heart.

    (* This was the same strategy, used in Finland, the Ryti-Ribbentrop-pact, in June, of military help of a German Luftwaffe, 70 pcs Stuka( staffel) and assaultartillery, against the Red army offensive, 9-20 June, to Vyborg, on the Carelian Penninsula, cutting of Finland from Balticum, and the Army Group Nord.) (*Ignác Romsics don´t pay much attention to the Hungarian Holocaust.)

    The day after the alleged coup d état, in July, (11th of as RW write) Lajos Dalnoki Veress accompanied Bethlen from Léga to Budapest, a meeting requested by next prime minis-ter, General Geza Lakatos, in private, then Horthy, Rakovszky and Janos Vörös, but too risky to change government, then.
    ————————————————————————
    THE POLITICAL ESSAY :
    ————————————————————————
    Back to hiding he begin writing his 50 p. : « Hungarian Politics in the 2nd War : Political essay or Charge-sheet » He, compared Sweden, Finland and Hungary, but their situa-tions, was much different from Hungary, */* what never succeeded in any real armed resistance against Germany, 1944/45 as Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, (Romania and even Finland, paying their hometickets) ,the fall of 1944. Hungary didn´t reach any kind of moral high grounds, not much, in the endphase of the war, perhaps the Neutrals in Budapest, instead can make more claims for this.

    But Bethlen never blamed Horthy for Hungary´s disaster, the one responsible, since 1919-1944 (and Henrik Werth), and he never included any introspective assessment of his own past, absolved himself of any responsibility. After his departure from Heren-csény, (October) he then entrusted his manuscript to Countess Ilona Bolza, as *earlier is mentioned.

    After Romania´s surrender August 23, 1944, Horthy once again summoned Bethlen to the Castle. But September 5 Red Army reached into Transylvania, the Slovak national uprising, 29/8, and the Finnish capitulation September 2. But Horthy, keep believing in German assistance, and an Allied landing in Dalmatia, within a week or two, and to fortify his determination, he summoned Bethlen again, September 10 with top comm-anders of the army, and his secret councillors.
    ———————————————————————-
    FORMER PM : ESTERHAZY SPOKE UP:
    ———————————————————————-
    But no minutes were kept, only Bethlen´s summary, (December 1944) recorded by his Soviet interrogators. Horthy had claimed that the war was lost, as Bethlen, the latter, found it necessary to send a delegation, to Moscow to negotiate for peace, and PM Lak-atos agreed, but the parliament had to approve.The former primeminister Esterhazy spoke up: –  » When the Government declared war on Russia, it didn´t asked the Parlia-ment´s opinion, and and contravene all constitutional laws. (* As in Finland).

     » – – -The future Parliament will forgive us if we sign peace, useful for the country, but never forgive us for having declared a war, destructive of the nation without consent. Bethlen: –  » If we bring up this in front of the cabinet, the Germans would soon find out, as the cabinet include traitors, German spies, as the Minister of Agriculture, Jurcsek, of Finance, Remenyi-Schneller. Then Bethlen left, for Herencsény , but next day September 11 Horthy´s car again come to fetch him, to inform that the majority of the cabinet, decided to continue the war, against any armistice.
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    BETHLEN SUPPORTS HORTHY`S MOSCOW-DEAL: OCTOBER 13 1944: AND EVEN MOSCOW LISTENED:
    ————————————————————————
    Bethlen advised him to take the matters in his own hands. Horthy hesitated for a long time, but September 22, Colonel Nadaý took off, for the Allies gen. hq, in Italy, and the Moscow delegation, crossed the borders, September 24. But Horthy wanted to save Bethlen for a more important role, not as negotiator but as, prime-minister, after Horthy´s separate peacedeal, in Moscow, October 13, and Bethlen discussed this solution, October 12. But as we know, the bail out of the October 15, didn´t succeed, instead of Bethlen, the Arrow Cross fascist leader, Ferenc Szalasi formed the government.

    (* But we must remember that Moscow, no doubt took some time to receive and listen to Horthy´s proposed separate peacedeal, but the Horthy-nationalists lacked the poss-ibilities to stay firm against the Germans and the Arrow Cross Party, coup d´etat, unlike the Romanians, in August, and Finland, this fall, 1944. Horthy couldn´t deliver. Perhaps there were no real chance of success, although U.S/ OSS, estimated the Honved, Hung-arian army, to 30 divisions.
    ———————————————————————–
    THEN ESCAPING THE RED ARMY : IN BORONKA : OCTOBER 1944:
    ———————————————————————–
    Then in the beginning of October, Bethlen must escape the Red army, to the western Hungary. He was hiding in Boronka,a small village near Lake Balaton,(southwest) in the residence of Mrs Andor Pál Szechenyi, widowed since 1943.

    (* Wikipedia/ Count Andor Pál Széchényi (1864–1943), married, secondly, Baroness Mária Szegedy-Ensch on 25 March 1925. The (very big) mansion of the famous Szech-enyi family is located in the town park of Marcali town. The neo-baroque castle was built in 1912. The hospital of Marcali was destroyed by bombing in 1944, therefore the hospital was moved into the mansion. */Today the (huge)building is a division of the hospital.)

    In addition with him: Antal(!) Bolza, major in the Hussars (probably brother of Ilona Bol-za), a mr Trenkwald, a former officer of Polish extraction, in the Imperial/Royal Army, and several members of the Countess family (Mária Szegedy-Ensch) found refuge here. Bethlen´s health deterioted, but they didn´t dare to call a doctor. (An elder brother Dr Geza Bolza (b.07) is even mentioned in the Bethlén context.)

    The « Court of settling accounts » and the Gestapo looked for Bethlen, (after October 15), in Inke, and then in the (above mentioned Marcali) residence, and assumed soon com-ing to Boronka. Then the Countess moved Bethlen to a hunting lodge, in the forest, then other residents of the castle joined him.

    The Soviet army was approaching, Kaposvar, from the Mohacs and Pecs area, and reach Boronka beginning of December,1944. A Cossack cavalry unit, searched the lodge, and found handguns, and handgrenades in the attic, they lined up everybody against the wall… but their fury abated after they find victuals, champagne, and the Polish Major (Trenkwald) was able to communicate with them.
    ———————————————————————-
    BETHLEN IN SOVIET CUSTODY: DECEMBER 7, 1944: INTERROGATIONS:
    ———————————————————————-
    Then Bethlen decided there was no point of stay in hiding, he sent Trenkwald, to the nearest Soviet command, and asked for discussions. A Soviet patrol came to fetch him on December 7. (December 4 or 8, even the Dutchman Gerritt van der Waals, was arrested, but 5 km´s south of Lake Velence on the same front sector, 120 km:s from Boronka, north east). Bethlen was taken to Kaposvár and interrogated by the political commissars of the 3rd Ukrainian Front. (Tolbuchin)
    ———————————————————————-
    TREATED WELL WITH RESPECT :
    ———————————————————————-
    From there to Pécs, and quartered in a spacious villa, could not leave town, armed gua-rds followed when taking a walk, and the house was guarded with machine guns. But they treated him well, took care of his needs, and treated Betlen as « guest », of the Sov-iet army. He was free to communicate with friends and politicians in Pécs, could use the telephone, and a radio in his room. Because of the risk of German counterattacks in Western Hungary , he was moved to Kiskörös, January 31, 1945 but the Soviets still treated him with favor.
    ———————————————————————–
    COULD BETHLEN SERVE THE NEW ANTI-NAZI GOVERNMENT ? : MKP.
    ———————————————————————–
    But Moscow and the Hungarian communists, were well aware of Bethlen´s activities during the war, and that he could be a source of legitimacy for anti-German and pro-Western forces.  » The bourgeoisie must not be granted a leading role, even in the tran-sitional role, due to the Hungarian communists meeting in Moscow September 28, 1944,-  » but if he should break with Hitler, we will not treat him as one – who had not broken this ties », hence they treat him well, made an attempt to include in the new leadership of Hungary.

    Bethlen, conceived the presence of Soviet troops, in Hungary, even in late 1945, as a transitional period, and that Hungary would become a part of British sphere of interest,  » as he was the only politician in Hungary that counts,and recognized by the British, I will be the one to receive the leading role in the country, if we survive that long. » He told his Soviet interrogators, (already) in Kaposvar, –  » he was ready after the fall of Budapest, to return, and be of use in a new provisional apparatus.  »
    ———————————————————————-
    BETHLEN MET THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT : BALOGH, VAS AND DALNOKI: 1945:
    ———————————————————————-
    They were several stages in the negotiations, between the new regime and Bethlen. In Pecs he was visited, by Zoltan Vas, returning from Moscow, in Kiskörös, he met the 1st secretary of the Prime minister, Istvan Balogh, who informed him of the provisional, government formed at Christmas 1944, by the four parties, the Smallholders, the Social democrats, the Communist Party, and the National peasant Party. February 23, the head of the provisional government, Bela Miklos Dalnoki, former general in Horty´s army, sent a car, which took him to the Soviet hq, of the Soviet army forces, then in Gödöllö.

    But if Bethlen appeared rather flexible, accepting different forces in the government, as Rassay (lib. dem.), the Christian socialists, and suggests Miklos Kallay for prime minis-ter. But the Hungarian communist and especially the Soviets, came to the correct con-clusion, that unlike some other bourgeois, politicians, they could not use Bethlen as a tool to achieve their ends.
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    BUT COMMISSAR DEKANOZOV : « RECOMMEND » FEBRUARY 17: . . .
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    But Deputy commissar Vladimir Dekanozov, reported to Foreign Affairs Commissar. V. M. Molotov February 17, 1945: « – Count Bethlen, is the most outstanding representative of Hungarian reaction, and is a convinced advocate of pro-British orientation. He could not hide his convictions,even during the interrogation after he crossed to our side, when he hypocritically tried to prove that it would be desirable to to have a communist repr-esentative in the new government in Hungary, but under no circumstances, as prime minister, since the country was not ripe for a communist regime. « – – –

    Dekanozov, also assumed that Bethlen would strenghten the right in a new regime, instead of the democratic forces, of the Communists, and the labor unions, and that British and American members, (Allied Control Commission) soon arriving to Budapest, and contact Bethlen, and will then take Bethlen´s word.

    By that Dekanozov recommended that –  » Bethlen be truly isolated, arrrested, and transported to the Soviet Union, where he must be kept for a few months, after which the issue must be settled for good. Molotov accepted the arguments of his deputy, and wrote on the margins of the report, March 20, 1945 :  » Carry out ».
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    BETHLEN FLOWN TO MOSCOW : LATE MARCH 1945:
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    Then Bethlen was already in Kunszentimiklos, between Danube and Tizsa, 50 km:s just south of Budapest, but was allowed to correspond, and walk freely, and treated with respect. But he had to share room with the Colonel of the General Staff, Zoltán Gál, claiming Bethlen was in prime condition for his age,(70 yrs). They discussed politics, and Bethlén was convinced that the Hungarian issue must be negotiating with Moscow. He correspond a lot, but kept his conservative stand of landownership. The last days of March, 1945, after his daily walk, the guards placed him in a car, and drove to a nearby military airfield, whence he was flown to Moscow.
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    BETHLEN AND WALLENBERG : ?
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    Bethlen´s last time, a short lesson in Hungarian history, can maybe be used in part, as a mirror to the life and fate of Raoul Wallenberg, 1944-1947, but if and how István Bethlen was in contact with Wallenberg, is most unknown. They were anyway treated in a way, in the same manner, of the Russians, (and of their national compatriots), including the tragical, perhaps « unavoidable » end, and Moscow´s denial process, here resting up to 1993. ( » * When somebody disappear in Russia, he´s probably dead… »)

    Bethlen´s wife inquired directly from Stalin, regarding the fate and whereabouts of her husband. She never received a reply. In his discussions with people from the Hungarian (coalition) government, in 1946, Stalin made reference to the fact, that Bethlen was in the Soviet Union, and his future fate should be decided.

    The response of the prime minister, a leader of the Smallholder Party, Ferenc Nagy, was recorded briefly by the Communist Ernö Gerö, then present: – » We don´t care if he does not come home , we would prefer that workers and peasants come home instead. » Nagy later, and already in exile, confirmed this statement. Thus keeping Bethlen away from Hungarian politics was all right not only with the Communists, but also with the Small-holders, the democratic and most  » right wing » party, within the government coalition.

    But Bethlen had probably genuine bad health, double the age of Wallenberg, (b.1874), (arrived April 1) but he received double rations, adequate medication and his last day in the Butirskaya prison hospital in Moscow, came October 5, 1946, by alleged paral-ysis of the heart, caused by massive arteriosclerosis, according to the autopsy by the coroner. (* To compare with the Smoltsov report of 1947/Raoul Wallenberg, could be useful.) ) Many theories of the reason for Bethlen´s arrestation, were produced, as of Wallenberg´s , but when Dekanozov´s report was released, (first 1993)  » the reason appeared was far more prosaic – to eliminate him from Hungarian politics. »/ Source : István Bethlen : a great conservative statesmen of Hungary : 1874-1946/ Ignác Romsics. – Columbia UP./NY (1995)

    The news of his death was not made public, not to be used against the Soviets in post-war Hungary. Therefore they merely informed Georgy Pushkin, the Soviet minister in Budapest, who gave the information confidentially to some members of the Hungarian government, 1947/48, and probably to Margit Bethlen, as well./Ignác Romsics.
    (* Reminds in a way, of the presumed background, of the definitive conclusions the Wallenberg brothers, drew 1947, about Raoul.)
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    CONCLUSIONS:
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    We don´t know the exact extent of the Swedish legation´s contacts, with Istvan Bethlen, and if Raoul Wallenberg played any role in the Hungarian separate peace sounderings with Moscow, in October 1944, what ended with the Arrow Cross coup ´d etat. But Ivan Danielsson did have, some confirmed information about Bethlén, during the summer of 1944. (Telegrams)

    What-if , such a pipe dream, project could have been implemented, 100.000s of lifes, could had been saved, but the odds was far low, or non-existent at all. But Moscow anyway was contacted, and they listened.

    Did Wallenberg knew what was going to happened, in Moscow, in Budapest during Oct-ober 1944 ? His diary is empty this week. He was perhaps implicated in a similar, failed project, September 1943, with Britain, in Turkey what the Russians was interested to have information about, some say. What-if ,could Raoul Wallenberg´s fate have been, the fall of 1944 ? Another question, more problematic, ugly : Did he appreciate, the way things developed, the Red army´s heavy offensive, what the Allies supported – but did Sweden ?

    * Wallenberg, supported the Hungarians, together with the British/Americans, to reach a separate surrender, to the West, but this sounderings from West, served most their mil-itary preparations for the D-Day, June 6 1944. In that light,the WRB-mission, seems no more than something of a minor « damage control », from president Roosevelt.

    * Perhaps, the real sad and cynical context is described by the following qoutations from:
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    Lázló Borhi./ Hungary in the Cold war 1945-1956: (2004(CE.UP) : Senior Research Fellow, The Hungarian Academy Sciences in Budapest.
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    « – – -The Allied invasion in Normandy, required that the German troops be removed from the theatre of war. This could be done in two ways. First by convincing Hitler that the invasion would be launched from the Balkans. Second by persuading Hitler´s allies to jump out of the war, with the policy of the stick and the carrot. Both lines were act-ively pursued. In Hungary´s case these policies were somewhat contradictory, since
    a German invasion was likely to result in the destruction of the democratic elements the Allies needed for democratic reconstruction.

    There ought to have been a further dilemma for the allied powers. Hungary was a haven for the last intact Jewish community in Europe. The Horthy regime refused to deport the bulk of the Hungarian Jewry.(exception of 20.000 deported to Kamenec Podolsk, 1941), but it was likely that their lives would be put in great jeopardy. Yet the fate of the Jews of the Jewish community did not matter in the Allieds calculations. The presence or abs-ence of a couple of Germany, divisions in Normandy, may or may not have made a diff-erence in the outcome of the war. ( But Borhi doesn´t appropriate,mentions the Hung-arians decisive complicity in the last phase of the Holocaust.)

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    APPENDIX I: ISTVAN BETHLEN, VICTOR MALLET (U.K) AND SWEDEN/FOREIGN MINISTRY : 1944: TELEGRAMS:
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    The Britains got information from Sweden, and used Swedish diplomatic channels.

    May 3, 1944 : Victor Mallet, British minister in Stockholm, informed his FO, that the Swedish government informed him about count Bethlen´s , wife, Margit, had received the message, his escape was not imminent, but in hiding, and if messages could be forwarded through the Swedish legation.
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    July 8, 1944:  » Per Anger (secretary in Budapest) sent a cable, to Stockholm/UD, about the U.S.A.F bombraid over Budapest, destroying 80% of the oil storages « .
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    July 21, 1944: Mallet in cable to his FO:  » The Swedish minister, in Budapest, Ivan Danielsson confirms that Bethlen still is safe and well hided in Hungary.  » (* Perhaps on his way to Herencsény/and the Bolza´s family, Antal, Ilona perhaps Geza.
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    APPENDIX II:
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    S.Berger & V. Birstein 2011./ – – – « Mr. Vinogradov firmly stressed that there were no other papers available about Willy Rödel . He added that the source for the few pages he had presented was a so-called « operative correspondence » file, containing communi-cations between prison officials and security organs about imprisoned foreign diplo-mats. According to Vinogradov, this particular collection consists of 549 pages and includes information about one or two other cases, such as the highly sensitive one of István Bethlen, the former Hungarian Prime Minister who had been arrested in 1945 and died a year later in Soviet captivity.  » /
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  12. Servus. dit :

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    (12.) FRANCO TRANDAFILO : CELLMATE WITH GROSHEIM-KRISKO:
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    The correspondent, Gunnar D. Kumlien, the Stockholms Tidningen January 9, 1952: Article/Heading  » Diplomatcolleague of Wallenberg, prisoner in the Soviet Union !

    – – – » The Italian, Franco Trandafilo, Journalist, then @ Il Tempo, with coverpicture, (October 1950/www) then claimed he shared cell in April 1950 with Raoul Wallenberg. He had informed the Swedish Rome-legation and Raoul´s family after the repatriation, in October 1950. Trandafilo even shared cell, with Henry Tomsen (a.k.a. Hermann Gros-heim-Krisko), and his information about Tomsen, could even be applicated to Wallen-berg, and the rescuing of the persecuted.

    Tomsen requested Trandafilo:  » to inform the Swedish UD, that he was jailed, and they will take further responsibility. » Trandafilo was then 1952, to published a book about his time in in the Butyrskaja prison in Russian captivity. – – -(with unknown title). This article, by Kumlien/ST resulted in a secret (!) demand from the Swedish Foreign Ministry /UD, not to be published in other Swedish newspapers.
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    FRANCO TRANDAFILO : MUSSOLINI FASCIST :
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    But this Franco Trandafilo, was from start a clearcut Italian blackshirt, Mussolini Fascist movement member.

    From the journal : The War Illustrated/ March 1944:/www – – –  » By the way it is known that after Mussolinis rescue by the Germans (1943/Skorzeny) he telephoned to Bova Skopa, Italian minister in Bucharest, saying he counted on him. Skopa replied, that his oath had been to the King,and so Mussolini appointed,in his place the very Germanophil (Franco) Trandafilo, for many years Stefani´s agent and cordially desteded by the Rom-anians for his arrogant behaviour.  » – – –

    (A German photo/www. shows Trandafilo 1943, according to this,with the German Nazi-minister in Bucharest, Manfred von Killinger in 1943.The latter implicated (instigation) in the feme-murder (Organisation Consul) (FreeCorps) of the German Vice Chanceller/Min-ister of Treasury, Matthias Erzberger, late August 1921, the man who signed for Germ-any , the Compiégne (France) capitulation agreement, November 11, 1918.

    (An elder brother to one of the murderers, Heinrich Tillessen, was a German admiral (Kriegsmarine/Romania), Werner Tillessen, Prisoner-of-war, (d.1953) is mentioned in the Wallenberg imprisonment, with colonel Horst Kitchmann, and G. Richter.)
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    The Swedish envoy, Ragnar Kumlin(!), informed Otto Danielsson/SÄK, December 19, that another repatriated Italian prisoner, Mohr who reported that Trandafilo informed the Norwegian authorities about, the alleged Norwegian citizen, Henry Tomsen. Lars Berg wrote March 12, 1951, (from Lima/legation) to UD, concerning the Norwegian legation´s investigations from February 27, about Grosheim-Krisko./Göran Rydeberg./

    But this information, for the Swedish legation, never reached Wallenberg´s relatives, but first the Wallenberg-committee, and Rudolf Philipp, messenger to the Dardels, and UD. But this was probably classified, until Grosheim-Krisko, was released, in December 1953 and visited Dardels, February 1954, and even received some compensation (20.000:-SEK= today, 300.000:-SEK, from the Swedish Foreign Ministry/UD.
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    CONCLUSIONS:
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    Out from C. McKay´s information here about the Swedish legation´s employment of Hermann Grosheim-Krisko, in August 1944, and due to Lars Berg, 1954,  » by recomm-endations from a Hungarian countess, or the German Budapest legation, (as Berg´s own secretary was a former German legation employee), and  » hardly standard diplomatic practice », during a false Norwegian identity, due to C. McKay. (2011)

    But this fact was anyway hidden by the Wallenberg investigators, not to stir up trouble, as Raoul´s contacts with the Ullein-Revizckys in Sweden 1943/44. All of Raoul Wallen-berg´s diplomat « colleagues », (imprisoned) are always presented very neutral, (during the Cold war) but were often in fact, loyal Nazi-officials, officers, most captured from Romania/ Bucharest as many of his later cellmates, warcriminals as Richter, Roedel, pre-sented as « police-attaché », etc. But if Raoul Wallenberg and the Swedish legation was suspected of assisting Hungarian/German Nazis to flee, his location perhaps was inten-tional ?
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    A source very, central in the Hungarian anti-nazi, coalition government, of December 1944 claimed :  » – – – The leading fascists have witout exception fled. We have not cap-tured a single minister,or general of the fascist regime. The cases before the people´s courts,concern largely thirdrate individuals,mainly such as have committed some crimes against Jews, and that is of course not the real thing. We have compiled a statistic and it turned out that more than 75 % of those interned are industrial workers, so now we be begin their release.  » – – –
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    How come ? If some assistence had been given, these « refugees », were Raoul Wallenberg and Ivan Danielsson, perhaps implicated or suspects, had some knowledge, of what laid behind this statement ?
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