Corpus delicti

19-01-2009 , by Василий ХРИСТОФОРОВ, Vasily Khristoforov , ed. ИД "Время"Издательство "Время" Vremya Novosti

Google translation from russia:

In the historical center of Budapest, on the street Dohoney is an unusual monument – a weeping willow. Her thin metal branches – leaves-plate engraved with the names of Hungarian Jews – Holocaust victims.  Near willow plaque of black granite with the names of people fleeing the Nazis were doomed to inevitable destruction of the Jews. The first name on the list – Raoul Wallenberg. Thanks to Swedish diplomat Wallenberg, who worked in the Nazis occupied Budapest in 1944, sent to death camps escaped several thousand people.  January 17, 1945 Raoul Wallenberg was arrested in Budapest by Soviet troops and disappeared.

Determining the fate of Raoul Wallenberg for many years by specialists from different countries. Nearly a decade led the search for historical records joint Russian-Swedish Working Group, established by intergovernmental agreement.  We investigated many versions examined hundreds of volumes of archival documents, held meetings with dozens of people.  But the researchers did not find the answers to critical questions: why the Soviet secret services was needed Wallenberg, what are the details of his stay in Soviet prisons, finally, what is the real reason and the date of his death? Documents related to Raoul Wallenberg, access is limited. Materials stored in the Central Archives of the Federal Security Service, in conjunction with the report of the Russian-Swedish group, and other documentary sources, allow to some extent to recreate a historical retrospective.

In the lists he was listed

After Germany’s defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Hungary intended to withdraw from the war. In this situation, Hitler demanded from the Hungarian leader Miklos Horthy absolute loyalty to the Reich, but Horthy replied to these demands rejection. (Who fought with the Axis Powers Hungary remained an independent state, de jure retain the right of foreign policy-making).  The answer was the Fuhrer’s orders, given by 19 March 1944 the commander of Army Group South, General-Colonel Maximilian von Weichs: occupy the territory of Hungary, to assume full powers in the country and create a powerful defense system.  October 15 Horthy announced its intention to seek a separate peace with the USSR. . Virtually the same day he was deprived of all his posts, and place the head of state took Ferenc Szalasi, the head of the Party of Hungarian Nazi Arrow Cross.

German Army Group « South » opposed the Soviet troops, who since October 29, 1944 to February 13, 1945 Budapest conducted an offensive operation.  It was attended by troops of the 2 nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts, 5 th and 17 th Air Army and the Danube Flotilla. The aim of the operation was not only the defeat of Nazi Germany’s military group, but the withdrawal of Hungary from the war. December 26 troops 2 nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts, joining in the Esztergom, come to the right bank of the Danube north of Budapest, directly, thus completing the encirclement of Budapest enemy (about ten divisions). The city turned violent street battles.  In order to avoid unnecessary casualties and destruction, the Soviet command the garrison city has filed an ultimatum of surrender by sending a group of envoys to the talks.The Nazis, after rejecting an ultimatum, shot them.

In January the Nazis took three strong counterattack to relieve the Budapest group and restore the front line of the Danube, but on January 27, rejecting these attempts, went on the defensive.  This allowed the complete elimination of the 185 thousandth encircled troops in Budapest. The most important political result of which lasted 108 days Budapest offensive by the Red Army became Hungary’s withdrawal from the war on the side of Nazi Germany, created the necessary conditions for a further clampdown in Czechoslovakia and in the Vienna area.  In the battles for Budapest killed 80 thousand Soviet troops.

December 31, 1944, when in Budapest were street battles, the Swedish Embassy in Moscow appealed to the Foreign Affairs of the USSR to take under the protection of the Red Army is in the besieged city of the Swedish mission.  In the Swedish diplomat in Budapest, had been on the secretary and chief of thirty-two humanitarian Raoul Wallenberg.

Wallenberg arrived in Budapest July 9, 1944 when up to a « final solution of Jewish question in Hungary remained a matter of days: the Nazis led by Adolf Eichmann, SS Obersturmbahnführer already been deported from various regions of the country more than four hundred thousand Jews. From the remaining two hundred thousand Jews capital was to be « cleaned up » in the next few days. Wallenberg gave the Hungarian Jews to the Swedish « protective » passports, thereby compelling the Nazis treated their owners as the citizens of a neutral state.  In addition, using a variety of methods – from a purely diplomatic to bribes and blackmail – he could organize Nazi-occupied Budapest, several « Swedish houses » which were under the auspices of the Embassy and therefore had immunity. The houses rented by the means of American and other foreign Jewish organizations, Wallenberg in Budapest resettled Jews, thus sparing them from deportation to death camps. The activities are carried out prior to the beginning of January 1945, while in Budapest not included Soviet troops liberated the remaining prisoners of the ghetto.

Deputy People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vladimir Dekanozov, received a request from the Swedish Embassy on the protection of the Swedish embassy in Budapest, immediately passed the information on it in the General Staff.  January 2, 1945 Assistant Chief of General Staff Major-General Nikolai Slavin issued instructions Commander 2 nd and 3 rd Ukrainian Fronts Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor and Tolbukhin: « The Swedish mission, which was then besieged Budapest, went underground, when it detects parts of the Soviet Troops take under the protection of its employees.  »

« Protection » Wallenberg

The fighting in Budapest were literally in every street and every house.  When a unit of Soviet troops on Jan. 13 seized the house № 16 on the street Bentsur, where the transportation department of the International Red Cross, they went Raoul Wallenberg and his driver, Vilmos Langfelder.  A Swedish diplomat told about his activities in Budapest and asked to give a telegram to the German addressed to Stockholm, as well as to announce that he is liberated by Soviet troops territory.  A report of the discovery of Raoul Wallenberg was transferred to the Chief of Staff 2-First Ukrainian Front, the commander of 30 Infantry Corps and the Chief of Political Department of the 7 th Guards Army, part of the troop 3rd Ukrainian Front. The response to this message was contradictory.  Thus, in 23 hours and 30 minutes and 14 January, was instructed: « with the 151 th Infantry Division Secretary of the Swedish Mission of Raoul Wallenberg to carry out immediately to the commander of 18 Infantry Corps Afonin, ensuring its safety and ease of movement. » At the same time a ban was placed on any link Wallenberg with the outside world.  To the report sent to the Chief of the Political Department 7 th Guards Army, there is an entry: « 18 – to Afonin. While nowhere go. Telegram nowhere to pass.

January 15, Chief of Staff 2-First Ukrainian Front Matvey Zakharov sent a report to the General Staff, as well as the headquarters of the 3rd Ukrainian Front of the discovery of Raoul Wallenberg and the measures taken for protection and the protection of his property.

The General Staff informed the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, and 16 January Dekanozov reported to the Swedish Embassy in Moscow that Wallenberg was found in the besieged Budapest and taken under protection by Soviet troops.

In February, the Soviet ambassador in Sweden, Alexandra Kollontai, based on information received from the Foreign Ministry, informed the mother of Raoul Wallenberg that her son was safe under the protection of the Soviet authorities.  Kollontai did not know what the term « protection » in the interpretation of Stalin’s police.

Wallenberg was suspected of having links with the American, British and German intelligence services and therefore fell into the hands Counterintelligence « SMERSH ».  January 17, 1945 Deputy Defense Commissar of the USSR and a member of T-bills, Army General Nikolai Bulganin sent a disposal team of the 2 of the First Ukrainian Front, Marshal Malinovsky: « found in the eastern part of Budapest on the street Bentsur Raoul Wallenberg arrested and brought to Moscow. Appropriate guidelines Counterintelligence « SMERSH » given. To accomplish this task provide the necessary funds.  Time to send to Moscow and last name of senior attendant Report back. Chief of Counterintelligence (GUKR) « SMERSH » People’s Commissariat of Defense (NCB) Viktor Abakumov was sent a copy of this order. (Viktor Abakumov – Colonel-General, under his leadership in 1943, was set up management Counterintelligence « SMERSH » NGOs in 1946 – Minister of State Security, in July 1951 was arrested in December 1954 was sentenced to death. Partially rehabilitated – acquitted of treason – in 1994. – VH)

January 25, Wallenberg, accompanied by officers of 2 First Ukrainian Front was sent to Moscow by train.  This « support » was actually an escort. February 6 Wallenberg transmitted to the Lubyanka, where he was arrested.  He was drawn up as a prisoner of war, was placed in the inner prison NKGB USSR with enrollment for GUKR Smersh NKO. Even experienced investigators were unable to determine the composition of the crimes of which could be accused of Raoul Wallenberg. Therefore, the registration card was arrested Earl « nature of the crime » remains filled.  May 29 Raoul Wallenberg was transferred to Lefortovo prison NKGB (MGB) of the USSR, and March 1, 1947 once again placed in Lubyanka (internal) prison, where his trail and got lost.

Proposals to eliminate

April 24, 1945, some time after his return to Stockholm, all members of the Swedish Mission (except for the Raoul Wallenberg Institute), the Swedish Ambassador to the USSR, Staffan Sederblom sent a letter to Deputy Commissar for Foreign Affairs Dekanozov requested to take measures to search for the missing diplomat.  People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, in turn, sought the information in NKGB USSR.  August 8th came the reply that the People’s Commissariat of State Security of information about the Swedish diplomat did not have.  This is untrue, as Raoul Wallenberg was a prisoner Smersh, « which referred to the Ministry of Defense.

From April 1945 to May 1947, Sweden eight times in writing and five times the oral treatment directed at the Raoul Wallenberg.  June 15, 1946, Stalin personally took Sederbloma and promised that the Wallenberg case will be investigated.

Nevertheless, for nearly two years prior to 1947, the Foreign Ministry were uniform message from the security organs that information about the Swedish diplomat, they do not have.

In February 1947, the Chief Intelligence Directorate Petr Fedotov verbally informed the staff of the Soviet Foreign Ministry, that Raoul Wallenberg is available to the MGB, promising to inform Molotov, as well as « to make proposals for further action on the matter. »

After nearly three exchanges in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs May 13, 1947 First Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Vishinsky wrote a memo to the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Vyacheslav Molotov, in which, based on information Fedotov suggested: « Since the Wallenberg case so far remained without movement, I I ask you to oblige comrade.  Abakumov submit a certificate on the merits and proposals for its elimination. It is crucial to the resolution Molotov note Wyszynski:  » Please report to me. 18.V.47 г.». 18.V.47 PM.

Pavel Sudoplatov believes that the last words of the note Wyszynski – proposals to eliminate « – entered into a sinister meaning. (Pavel Sudoplatov – Lieutenant-General of State Security, a member of several operations to eliminate « enemies of the Soviet regime, including assassination of Leon Trotsky in Mexico, the organizer of intelligence and sabotage activities of the NKVD in the fascist front. After the war – the head of 4-th control MGB . In August 1953, arrested and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Rehabilitated in 1992. – VH).  VYSHINSKY not proposing to close the case (if would be different wording – « to close the case »), and almost demands that Abakumov had submitted proposals on the destruction of Wallenberg as an undesirable person for the Soviet leadership.  Resolution Molotov, Deputy Prime Minister, was in fact the order – to submit proposals on how to eliminate Wallenberg.  That, according to Sudoplatov was a common practice in those years.

Archival documents indicate that Raoul Wallenberg died July 17, 1947. However, on 18 August of that year VYSHINSKY informed the Swedish Ambassador: « Raoul Wallenberg in the Soviet Union there and it is unknown to us. » Referring to certain measures taken by his search, and failed, VYSHINSKY speculated that « Wallenberg during the fighting in Budapest, died, or was the victim salashistov.  (Salashisty – supporters who replaced Horthy Ferenc Szalasi. – VH)

During this time Stalin died, were dismissed, arrested and shot Abakumov and Dekanozov. But many individuals involved in the death of Swedish diplomat, or knew about it « too much », were still in high government positions. Therefore, the treatment of the Swedish representatives of the Soviet leadership reacted without changing tactics – without providing any information.

In the spring of 1956 in the Soviet-Swedish talks held in Moscow, after the Swedish side has provided new material on Wallenberg, the CPSU Central Committee nevertheless decided to review and clarify the circumstances of the death of Swedish diplomat.

In October 1956, Foreign Minister Dmitry Shepilov and chairman of the KGB, Ivan Serov, submitted a draft response in the form of aide-memoire. In the draft stated that « no documents » on the presence of Raoul Wallenberg in the Soviet Union was not found, also noted that the prisoner Wallenberg was not known to Soviet personnel under the present name. However, the survey found that Raoul Wallenberg after arrest was taken to Moscow by order of Abakumov, where he was sitting in Lefortovo and Butyrskaya prison.  Further pointed out that 17 July 1947 Raoul Wallenberg died suddenly, his body cremated. The note emphasized that the untrue information was given to requests from the Foreign Ministry ordered Abakumov, who « for his crimes, including the arrest of Raoul Wallenberg, suffered the most severe punishment. »

Despite the fact that during the trial and investigation Abakumov not been charged in the case of Raoul Wallenberg, this « inaccuracy » in the eyes of those who prepared the note had no value. (The draft response also wrong, it was stated that Raoul Wallenberg was kept in Butyrskaya.) However, the draft document was not endorsed the party leadership of the USSR.

It took another four months, and only 5 February 1957 the Bureau of the CPSU Central Committee approved a new version of the Swedish side of the answer. The document, called « memorandum Gromyko, the Soviet government officially acknowledged the arrest and finding Wallenberg in the Soviet Union after the war, as well as the fact of his death July 17, 1947 from myocardial infarction in the inner prison of the MGB.  (Andrei Gromyko from 1957 to 1985 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. – VH)

All subsequent years, responses to official inquiries Swedes were given with reference to a « memorandum Gromyko » and addressed to the former State Security Minister Abakumov report from July 17, 1947 Chief Health Part Lubyanka Smoltsova the death of Wallenberg.

In a report Smoltsova said: « The well-known to you (Abakumovu. – VH), a prisoner Wallenberg tonight in the chamber suddenly died allegedly as a result of the coming of myocardial infarction. In connection with the existing order from you the personal observation Wallenberg please indicate to whom to request an autopsy to determine cause of death.  » Note the important detail: in the lower left corner on the report recorded as follows: « report the Minister personally. Ordered the body cremated without an autopsy. July 17. Smoltsov.

Afterlife

Despite the official statement by the Soviet authorities about the death of Raoul Wallenberg, in 1960 – 1970-ies, a host of « witnesses », allegedly saw him alive after 1947. Some of them claimed that Wallenberg was imprisoned in the Soviet Union until 1975. (Optional conducted already in the 1990’s thorough investigations have shown that these testimonies are untrue.)

In the Central Archives of the KGB were found personal documents of Raoul Wallenberg, personal items and money. The most important finding was the scorecard Internal Prison NKGB USSR, found in late August 1989.

In October 1989, relatives of diplomats and representatives of the Swedish Society of Raoul Wallenberg, who visited Moscow, was transferred to a diplomatic passport, cigarette, car registration certificate, a copy of prison cards, foreign currency and a pocket calendar of Raoul Wallenberg, found in the central archives of the KGB of the USSR.

After receiving assurances from the Soviet leadership’s willingness to continue, the Swedish side continued to raise the issue of « Wallenberg case ». In November 1989, the Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze assured the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs of Wall Andersson, that the Soviet authorities would do everything possible to clarify the « Wallenberg case ». Mar. 7, 1990 Chairman of the KGB, Vladimir Kryuchkov, at a meeting with the Ambassador of Sweden in Moscow Eryani Berner confirmed that the Soviet Union aims to « finally resolve the case of Raoul Wallenberg, who for many years, complicating Soviet-Swedish relations.

In 1991, a joint Russian-Swedish Working Group, comprising members of the Foreign Ministry, KGB-FSB, the Defense Ministry, Interior Ministry and the Russian Archive, engage independent domestic and foreign experts. After 18 official meetings on Jan. 11, 2001 summed up the joint work of many years. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sweden, published a report of the Swedish-Russian working group. In the process found that the number of documents, including the detainee case of Raoul Wallenberg, was destroyed, moreover, the transfer of prisoners in magazines edit out individual pages.

An important outcome of the study of archival documents was the decision of the General Procuracy of the Russian Federation in December 2000 to publish a report: « The General Prosecutor of Russia took the decision on the rehabilitation of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg and his driver Vilmos Langfeldera. The relevant conclusion of the Chief Military Prosecutor’s Office approved the Attorney-General Vladimir Ustinov.

The Public Ministry as a result of the study of archival material found that Wallenberg and Langfelder « by the decision of the Soviet extrajudicial bodies have been wrongfully arrested and imprisoned on political grounds as a socially dangerous individuals without charges of committing a specific crime. » Earlier, on November 9, 2000, the Commission under the President of the Russian Federation on the rehabilitation of victims of political repression recognized these measures of political repression. According to the law of the Russian Federation « On the Rehabilitation of Victims of Political Repression » from October 18, 1991 Raoul Gustav Wallenberg fully rehabilitated.

Do not open

Cause of death of Raoul Wallenberg is still disputed by many researchers. Some suggest that he could not bear hardships and inhuman treatment – mental and physical pressure, which he probably suffered, others believe that the diplomat died in a tragic set of circumstances. But the most common version is the assumption that the shooting of Wallenberg in prison.

Sudoplatov suggests that Wallenberg had been killed with the assistance of Colonel of Medical Service Mayranovskogo Gregory, who worked with poisons for committing political assassinations, which are then put forward as accidents. Indirect confirmation of this version is addressed to Stalin and Molotov document, first published by Dmitri Volkogonov, the elimination of the MGB American citizen Ogginsa Isay, who was imprisoned from 1939 to 1947. In 1942 – 1946 years of the U.S. Embassy has repeatedly appealed to the People’s Commissariat of the USSR to transmit Ogginsa American authorities. Abakumov, be sanctioned by Stalin and Molotov, organized liquidation Ogginsa, and his dead body was cremated without an autopsy. Ogginsa, according to Volkogonov, eliminated, so that he could not tell the truth about the Soviet prisons and camps. Date of death Ogginsa and Wallenberg (July 1947), the similarity of wording in the relevant documents show that the version of Sudoplatov is real.

No answer still remain, and other important questions: who, when and why the destroyed documents in the case of Raoul Wallenberg?

According to one version, the documents were destroyed in 1947 by order of Abakumov, who was trying to keep secret from Stalin’s what happened to Raoul Wallenberg in July 1947. This is unlikely, since Abakumov was not an independent political figure and could not act behind Stalin. If, however, proceed from the fact that Stalin was going on and even gave instructions on it, then there is no reason to get rid of documents. According to another version, the materials were destroyed in 1951 by order of Abakumov before his arrest. But it is not Wallenberg was so important to Abakumov, that he was worried about this, so this version is also unlikely.

It is possible that these documents were destroyed in 1954 when the KGB chief Serov on the orders of Nikita Khrushchev, who became First Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, has destroyed large quantities of material security bodies. According to Sudoplatov, the destruction of archival material began in the preparation of the memorandum Gromyko, due to the fact that Molotov and Bulganin, who knew the reasons for the arrest and elimination of the Swedish diplomat who still occupy a high position.

The fate of Raoul Wallenberg remains a matter of interest to many people in different countries. In the archives received the request to search for new materials. Point in the history of Raoul Wallenberg has not yet been set.

Vasily Khristoforov,

Head of the registration and archives Russian Federal Security Service, Lieutenant-General, Doctor of Law, a member of the Board to rehabilitate victims of political repression under President of Russia

See the answer about the article in an open letter by Guy von Dardel, half brother to Raoul Wallenberg and the Independent researchers

 


Состав преступления

Точка в «деле Валленберга» не поставлена до сих пор

В историческом центре Будапешта, на улице Дохань стоит необычный памятник — плакучая ива. На ее тонких металлических ветвях — листья-пластинки с выгравированными фамилиями венгерских евреев — жертв холокоста. Рядом с ивой мемориальная доска из черного гранита с именами людей, спасавших обреченных нацистами на неминуемую гибель евреев. Первое имя в этом списке — Рауль Валленберг. Благодаря шведскому дипломату Валленбергу, работавшему в оккупированном фашистами Будапеште в 1944 году, отправки в лагеря смерти избежали несколько тысяч человек. 17 января 1945 года Рауль Валленберг был задержан в Будапеште советскими войсками и бесследно исчез.

 

Выяснением судьбы Рауля Валленберга много лет занимаются специалисты из разных стран мира. Почти десять лет вела поиски архивных сведений совместная российско-шведская рабочая группа, созданная на основе межправительственного соглашения. Были исследованы многочисленные версии, изучены сотни томов архивных документов, проведены встречи с десятками людей. Но исследователи так и не нашли ответы на важнейшие вопросы: зачем советским спецслужбам нужен был Валленберг, каковы подробности его пребывания в советских тюрьмах, наконец, какова истинная причина и дата его гибели? К документам, связанным с Раулем Валленбергом, доступ ограничен. Материалы, хранящиеся в Центральном архиве ФСБ РФ, в сочетании с отчетом российско-шведской группы и другими документальными источниками, позволяют в некоторой степени воссоздать историческую ретроспективу.

by Василий ХРИСТОФОРОВ, Vasily Khristoforov, ed. ИД « Время »Издательство « Время » Vremya Novosti –> More.
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